Jung2002_Power_Control_MACAdhoc

Jung2002_Power_Control_MACAdhoc - B „ †W B q BW D B T S 9...

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D7 h z B v h v7 I7 v B 6 P i I A t ‡ 5 b f ‡ 5 l D S‘ i B 8 h 87 D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D g&£w—[email protected]wx©UCvgwHeuHP v h v7 u A v t tWW A V 7 V B 9 ‡ † r b ` f ` 5 ` n i I A ‡ 5 b f ‡ 5 l D S‘ 8W g&Fsf©!g§UEGCF0scqQpocmƒ§mQ©4pQ•f§kw&EB f!GhEsC!G¥Ejg£ˆHr¥GwG£xHC§¥H!XGhx©UCˆHG£¥2eS q BW D B T S 9 P I B D B i7 i B 8 h S P 87 8 B v B 6 V 8 W S D P I S V D B T S 9 B 8 B 6 P ‘ A B i7 I7 A v B 6 5 †W S D P I S V D B T S 9 B P A D S 9 D S V I7 S P d d† ™ ˜ – “ “ “ ’ ‘ G£&gefh©eX¥H!§G•E©UCQ¥eueC¥§G£&c¥QXpXX—••”CeS 8 I S7 P A V 7 i S v BW 9 v7 8 i B 8 S 9 S D 9 B q A 6 8 D B 6 V D A B 8 B D W A D B q B ‡ † 87 £X¥eUg£pwwHaUHXC§¥£‰yUˆ¥E£x¥sUHG¥#euEyGpcGH8 fexyxeƒ‚HEC€§CGyGhx©UC©gwHeuHRHsXr¥GFphQUW A … P B „ V A 9 f D B 9 A I S W B q BW D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P t D A q S P 8 B i S I 8 T S fW A P A 6 P W S V S P S D 9 b ` Y W S D P I S V D B T S 9 A 8 P I B 8 B D 9 D B 9 A 9 87 6 g§ce[email protected][email protected]@£©5 † | I7 q A ££&pU¥8 t |D B I B ‘ S B8 S 9D h 9 B 6P D S‘ Á ²µ¿ º e¥EE#eQHXC¥££h¥o§¦eXHe£§² À x§FrF¥”Q©yUECeƒ•¥P µ ´ ³ ² ± t i h P 8 B T t D B 9 A 9 87 6 I ’ †W B I I A 6 V 8 8 BW B D7 T B 6 P ‘ S B 8 h B D W A7 P A 9 8 B q S D 9 v7 S P i B 8 4…eG£§ƒu€HE&E¥Q€¥%evHG¥Q§&¥sƒH€Xe¥Fw—¥‚GHh B … tWW A7 P I B P S 9 I A V W S D P I S V D B T S 9 t | I7 q A 8 t | D B I B | I7 i7 q S D 9 S Csg§&¥!G¥§CweU§¥H!XGoE©UC!FpU¥Re¥EGˆ£&ps¥£‰¥P I S7 P7 i i A I ’ †ž ­ ™ t  ™ t ­ t  t ® t d‡ I S7 P 9 v h 8 I S V t | D B I B B V h X¥g££Xm4m s§©pX©Fp©£oXgxX¥FwH§Ge¥EG€G££i f B D S P D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P t D A q tW … A P7 h 8 6 V7 6 T 8 B v B 6 V 8 Á ² µ¿ º x¥a¥rx©UCrwH£§uHHe§w£§ugHuQ%GwEuH2X”e§² À µ ´ ³ ² ± B 8 h S P 87 B q7 P A I D B PW A D B 6 P S I ` †ž ¬ ™ t « d t – t ‡ BW … A I S x§FsHv¥‰fy¥e¥E¥g§rE£¥§@a UXoFG©F0p™ &£§XH8 f A B D i B v B B i I B 6 T B V A‘ D B P I7 „ D S T P B I 8 8 BW B D7 T 8 P7 i S | I7 D sU¥‚UwEG£xG£QwGeeHE¥!‚¥§©qEvHE&E¥Qf¥g¡em¥EB f T S 9 t … ´ ¿ ·¿ ¶ ´ ¾ ² ½ A D B P I B S P B i S I A T SWW A 8 v 87 I A 6 V B v | I hUC€pQq§‚¥gsUycE¥!Gf¥Fps¼U[email protected]eƒuGww7 f!U¥hEUp0GwHeƒuGwcpkU§x%x[email protected][email protected] q A 8 D B T S § † 8 v 87 I A 6 V B v » º¹ ¸ · ¶ µ ´ ³ ² ± B 8 h S P 87 t | D B I B B q D B f I S V S P t A T B I ° † P 8 B D B P I7 ‘ S B D A I S7 P 9 v h 8 I S V t | D B I B B V h i B [email protected]!2eˆ¥swX¥£w£H§Gw§¥x[email protected]FU¥D ¦ ' ¡  ¦ 3 ¦  ( 1   ) ( ©&24©&2©§0©¨ Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Coordinated Science Laboratory University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ¦ ' ¡ ¦ "  ¢    ¨ ¦ ¤ ¢ ©&%$#!©§¥£¡ Dept. of Computer Science Texas A&M University, College Station A Power Control MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks General Terms † DB 9 A 9 B 6 UxC§ƒˆ¥P 8 B i hW V I S V ¬ I S7 P V B ‡ † 8 PW h 8 B D I S7 P AW h v7 8 8 B 8 8 h V 87 i ­ I S7 P V B E£ƒG£XGf§&¥xGFwG¥£HG¥w§¥e&g&HGHH£GH£†X¥EEF‡ [email protected]!§Esp Ëh0e•wGuH‰UHXC§¥£¥h¥pEkE¥D Ì b ` Y W S DP I S b D B T S §Ê Y b § 8 A B v B 6 V8 i B8 S 9 S D 9 B 6 P S P D B‘ B WQ[email protected]X¥H!XEE©UCRUH§CX¥F£X0¥!GHE¥£9 W7 T B „ †W S V S P S D 9 b ` Y W S D P I S V D B T S 9 i B 8 S 9 S D 9 D h S 8 P I B 8 B D  I S7 P V B ‡ † | I7 v S V P D S 6 8 8 P7 i I A B v B 6 V 8 W S D P I S V D B T S 9 i B 8 S X¥EEF££&w§G¥H§£HQ¥†ƒ§%wGuH#§¥H!XGcE©UC€GHXC9 fe¥£ÉgHXpG¥F—€GC¥EHG£mÉX¥EGp¨p¢X¥EEF¢$EyX| S D 9 tW 8 h S7 q B D 9 A 8 B …7 D V 8 B i ® I S7 P V B ‡ † È I S7 P V B ‡ I7 I B q7 87 d d† ™ ˜ – “ “ “ ’ I S i I h S D | „ V A Ç † „ D S T i B P AW B D B 6 P 8 T B7 q B v§py§¼o•”‚Xmƒ£X¥§pu§©‚C¥e©‚G¥e&G¥f¥sQEpG¥D ™ I S7 P V B ‡ † 8 T SWW S‘ 8 A i B Æ7 I A | D S 87 D B 9 A 9 87 6 P ‘ S P 8 B D B 6 §&¥xGF†GQUX¦‰eUGey¥e‰&xC§ƒ‰£¥©§”G¥g©5 Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. MOBICOM’02, September 23–28, 2002, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Copyright 2002 ACM 1-58113-486-X/02/0009 ... 5.00. ¯ † ˜ d ® ­ «f d ˜ i I A ­ ™ ­ ­ ¬ f « « 8 P I A D | I S7 P A i I h S FG£§§qEF†ƒe€ey§§4e§c¥!eu§a§&¥sX£ª B V I B7 V ‡ W A I S7 P A © t … P D A 9 I7 i B P D S 9 9 h 8 87 6 V D A B 8 B D 87 6 EGGpw§X¥eˆ~pyHsƒ¨ˆU¥HeC£Hw¨u¥eUHG¥v©5 S P 8 B h z7 I 6 V B P t B D S‘ B D B 6 5 † t | D B I B ‘ S P I h S v A i B P7 v7W A B i7 ¥E!&uG¥0X¥e¦E¥x©†!§¥E£Ghep£XweU¥gw&†f£&pq f S D 9 6 V7 6 T 8 B7 D B P P A … t … i B D B T S 9 tWW A h 8 h B D A 8 P 8 S 6 8 8 BW B D7 §¥FxQpE&¥x¥Heƒˆ!rU¥x©UCg&eƒH£¥ep¥”X0HE&E¥$„ „D S TPB ¥§4E£I V S 6 i A tW S D P I S V 8 8 B V V A v h7 i B v t | I7 q A 8 t | D B I B tW S D P I S V D B T S !£g§!eX¥H!XE•HEGG§¡£GwXFps¥re¥EGXeX¥H!XG•EUp§ B V I A v D S‘ D B § t I |7 8 B n t 8 v 6 P7 D S |W E§f¥e¦HEpƒ#§&HE%Gw£¥g¥§X@` 1. Keywords Categories and Subject Descriptors ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Eun-Sun Jung 2. RELATED WORK Nitin H. Vaidya I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P i I A B | I A D | I7 8 I B 8 D B7 D D A V B 6 P P A 6 P B P S XHHwHeuHyƒefX£§uaH£GHrE¥HeUs£¥eƒ¥g¥§ˆ© †eGyE&€EUC€”G£X€¥—£&H£$G£QT R§§av§§uD W B q BW D B T S 9 P 8 B 6 |7 6 B 6 P | I7 8 h I B 6 H ˜   87 B | I A | I7 8 I B 8 D B7 D D A V B 6 P t 8 I S7 P AW h v7 8 D h S I ’ †ž ‡ B | I A D I S7 HEHE¥HeUr¥CG£X¥e&gH‰£§v4 e« €§euy§&H8 f”wH£§uH¥‰§¥0EX¥sA #Gw¥h©4eXG£§u”£&p§¦eX§§uD 87 v 8 I A D P B 6 P I A 6 P D B | D W 8 B v7 P S T P t B V I A P 8 I7 D S‘ t B | I A I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B 6 P I A 6 P D B | D W tWW A V7 9 t P 87 B | I A D | I7 8 I B XHHwHeuHc¥f§¥QEX¥sA fg§G&£F4©%X£§urHGH8 D B7 D D A E¥Hs©b dXHHwHeuH8 QEFƒGH£¥HGH¡§U§§uD † I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P P D B i I B 8 B 6 P B 8 I B 8 I A V B | I A | I7 8 I B 8 D B7 D D A V B 6 P I7 8 B i S © Ÿ ´ » º · µ » º¹ ¶ º ´ ¶ µ ´¹ µ µ · HEHaE¥HeGv¥…€G£pcx!peH‚!¦¥xEvx‚ux§•¨ E †W B q BW D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P P 8 B 6 |7 eGXGcx©UCQgwH§uHQ”G£X6 B 6 P | I7 8 h I B 6 T H ˜  ™ 87 B | I A D I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B 6 P t 8 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IEEE 802.11 MAC PROTOCOL A B Carrier Sensing Zone Transmission Range C D E † 8 I S7 P7 i I S V W B I I A 6 V B 6 P I S i B 8 A … B Æ7 G£X¥g£XGjG£§x‰£¥†§€UH§GH8 B v A D‘ b ` Y B 8 S S 6 V S P ž d d‡ I7 i B P I B 8 B D 9 S 8W A 87 B v B 6 V 8 B q7 [email protected]!u†¥•E§‚yG¥pEHG¥£†H&eRwG£xHgy¥P f£e§wc•XE&H•EXxeƒh¥gXsUHeƒEyGx©UCwXHHwHeuHP 9 A i A I ` † B Æ7 8 P B „ V A 9 B 6 P I S i B 8 A … W B q BW D B T S 9 I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D B P 7 D 9 S D 9 9 A I A 8 B 8 S S 6 V ž  t ‡ I7 W S V S P S D 9 B 6 P t 8 h 6 5 † t | D B I ¥sA ¥FX¥F§e‰GH§!us#£® m0XG!¥e¥£¥CG£p©ˆ!e¥EEB B D S v | I7 v h 8 I S V t 8 I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B D i B 8 A B D V I7 S P i A BW I A V B P A ¥ewg£wH§GƒG£XHHwHeuHE¥†UHeU¥Eg¥†XU†§U‰¥suD D S D D B P7 … D B 6 |7 6 ` † 8 D S D D B B D S v I7 PW h 8 B D S 8W A I A V P h … t 8 | I §¥Hx%gˆE§&£¨G¥§¥HE¥ewy‰g£HG¥€He—eUˆFdGX£7 f!U¥v§¥E£Gy&ˆgHG¥§U%E©UCyXHHwH§uHw£&E£G¥%e¥P q A 8 t | D B I B I7 PW h 8 B D I A V D B T S 9 I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P | I7 V h i B D P A 6 I S7 P A q D B 8 … S B 6 P I S i B 8 A … 87 B v B 6 V 8 i B 8 S 9 S D 9 B 6 5 †ž  t §¥e§¥EH§a¥‚X…UHeƒfawG£xH‚UHXC§¥£v©ˆ scF ‡® I7 B Æ7 8 P B „ V A 9 S P | I7 i D S V V A i BWW S D P I S V 87 D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D &wE&Hxyxeƒa¥a££u§EG§G&§¥Hp§Ggx©UCgwH§ud5 † B „ A 68 i I A 6 ‡ 5 XyeƒH£§€Q©b f ‡ 5 l B 6 P v S D‘ W B q BW D B T S 9 i B P A7 P S | B I B 6 P | I7 8 h W B I I A 6 V A P A !Qoo¥¡§¥k!GyE&pE©UCRU¥s&¥§XE•¥c£H!G£§[email protected] i B q D B 8 B D B 6 P I S D h V V S 8 I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P r b ` i I A ` 5 ` n t I B 6 Uy¥EHG¥@¥fXQFGG!h§HH&wH£§uH¡@€ƒe~2ocF#G£©5 †eG£§xwue£wRX¥EHG¥s¥vX¥e¥”G££¥f¥fc§c£ƒEH8 W B I I A 6 V A P A i A B q D B 8 B D S P I S7 P A I7 P 8 B i B 6 P S P ‡ “ l I A 8 i I B B V D h S 8 B 6 P t ‡ 5 b ‘ S I S7 P 9 B V B D B 6 P I ° † 8 I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P A P A G¥FXH†¥jQ©re…§&¥FGGG¥€¥mˆxG£XHHwH§uHue£i D S‘ B 8 h S P W B q BW D B T S 9 P A 6 T i I A W B I I A 6 V 6 V7 6 T B i7 V B i 8 B i S §kcH£g¥CGyE&©E©UCQeQsƒ§jEeƒu†u[email protected]&GGFQG£p£I I S7 P A I7 P 8 B i i I A B V D h S 8 t B „ A 6 8 i I A 6 ‡ 5 b f ‡ 5 l I A t Ç † D B T S §¥eƒ¥”GFaƒeG¥£§H§y§H£ƒeƒ†Q©4!Qo€§€ohUEUC9 P7 v 8 I A D P P 8 B 6 |7 6 B 6 P | I7 8 h W B I I A 6 V W S D P I S V B 6 P 6 | h S D 6 P i B gwHeuHc”EX£g£¥f£H2EeƒupX¥H!§G¥aX£X¥F¥vG¥P f P7 v 8 I A D P B D A 8 P B „ V A 9 P 8 A V i A S D … i I A t Ì P B „ V A 9 W A7 V B 9 8 AÊ ‡ “ HgwHeuHh¥eo¥Eyu§ƒo”§G£XX¥£R§yxxEyu§ƒ§&GGCH% †ocl [email protected]G£eƒuyus¢§&HHe—¥UH£w7 ‡ 5 b t ‡ 5 l I ` † 8 B i S I S P 8W B I I A 6 V A P A i I |7 8 8 A S P i B 8 h 8 W B I I A 6 V W S D P I S V ` † 8W B I I A 6 V A P A i BW 97 PW h v i I A W B I I A 6 V W S D G£§x#X¥H!XE¡hGG£§xsus‰£&¥g£R€§pEeƒu2§¥HP f I S V B I S 8 B 8 h ž – ‡ I7 i B 8 S 9 S D 9 W S V S P S D 9 W S D P I S V D B T S 9 £§Gw§GHe§™ É&wUHXC§¥£§G!¥§¥F§¥Hp§GrE©UCƒ` † 8 I S7 87 G£XHW fW S V | I7 8 h A V t 8 „ I7W V7 D P B v v t 8 A I7 PW h 8 B D 8 B i S I | I S v A 8W B q B gXGfH£§UGF£&‰¥HEwwF”e&ˆgHG¥QG£p£w§w§%GXGW D B T S 9 P I B D B i7 i t D B q B T S } † tWW A V7 v A I t i W B q BW D B T S 9 8 P7 B 8 A B D EsC!G¥xjFpUEyE©Uˆ2!eUw§ƒFpGXGE[email protected] f B i D S B 8 A B D V I7 S P B i S I 6 V A B 8 T SWW A B v B 6 V 8 87 6 5 † 8 B i S I D S EFˆeH§U¥E£s¥ˆ£p£au§UcQs§%wGuHc£©GE£p@eC… f 6 |7 B I 6 P7 T B P A V7 I h v v S V S P t D A 8 8 B V B I D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P v h £§Gf¥gQh¥eU£Rw§G¥sHe¥HGEGhx©UCgwH£§uH¨gv f7 I7 v B 6 P D S‘ BW … A P A 8 I7 A P I7 A v P ’ † B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P S gw€¥we¦f&£§uvs£&eu!&efs‚XwG£xH¼HFˆ©†¥¥P D AW7 v7 8 S 8W A 87 ž d‡ I7 i B P I B 8 B D 9 W S V S P S D 9 W S D P I S V D B T S 9 e&wHH&eREg¢—U¥!GHG¥F©XG!¥e¥£oX¥H!XGgEsC{` †ž È ™ t ˜ ‡ I7 i B 8 S 9 S D 9 S 8W eejp§™ €UH§CX¥£wHeA B D A 8 V7 D P B v | I7 P h S D D B 6 P S W A D B q B ‡ † b ’ ‡ ` Ç S P D AW7 v7 8 W S V S ¥ssG¥HEwy¥£§¥sE£¥§h§uxyGFoc”Fˆ©—¥ws&&wHQXE!¥P f S D 9 b ` Y W S D P I S V D B T S 9 A 8 B 8 h S 8W A ° l ` § † 8 B i S I ‘ S D7 A 9 [email protected]!XGhx©UCgQGH£sH[email protected]eƒrA I B B T P B … B P h S D | I7 v h 8 I S Vf t | D B I B T SW A B I7 v D B P B i S P t B P h S GG©qECr¥£X¥w£&w£H§G‚Fe¥EE¨U&wrw¥E¥x£†¥CX¥£§¥D A I S 9 S 6 6 V A B P A W B q BW D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P B 6 P I S i B 8 A … I S7 P V I h f§wX£€u§G©eƒGyG©x©UCgwH£§uHQ¥sXwUHeƒfX¥E£k‘ P 8 S V A 8 B 8 S S 6 ° l ` § † t | D B I B T SW B v h 8 I S V 6 V7 6 T 8 B P h S ”XE€GH§!uV @cj¨!e¥EEÄUawH£XG¢uQfG¥£§¥D 8 B I7 v D B P B i t I S7 P A Æ7 v7 P 9 S | I7 P h S D B D A T A f D B T S 9 A tž ‡ ° l ` G£&w¥x¥E£§#§¥eUw¥£§h¥£§¥o¥e©G4Hx©UC©§‚s­ ¢@@j§ † † ® I S7 P V B ‡ I7 87 6 P I S B P A D S … W B B „ † P7 | I7 8 A B D V B i ‘ S i A B P 8 I p™ £s§¥EGFw&•¥R§c¥su§CeA EhpUgH§G¥EG£desXU¥”£7 t#§¥£wH£XG‚e¥EG€¥vH§U¥x…g§&¥!G¥eCÉGfawEuH8 I S7 P 9 v h 8 I S V t | D B I B B 6 P B 8 A B D V I7 tWW A7 P I B P S 9 t A v B v B 6 V b’ ‡ ` Ç B 6P t BD S vDB 6PD h ª † P h 9 6 | h SD 6P B 6P B i AD | B i I A V P A 6 ”F%%¥!§¥§w¥E£¥H£UF£X§¥£¥ˆ£¥ˆ£§u§GFaeUQe¥P | I7 v S V P D S 6 8 A 8 A 6 B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P P A 6 P i I h S‘ B „ †W S V S wXG¥He[email protected]%£¥©e¥fXkc—oeXE!¥P f S D 9 b ` Y W S D P I S V D B 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BASIC POWER CONTROL PROTOCOL †W B q BW D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D eGyG@EsCQgwH£§uHP BW …7 8 8 S 9 v h v7 u A v B 6 P B P S I B i £&HH§C‘g&Fsf€¥€¥§£G£y P B † T SW B … i B …7 D V 8 B E# ‰U&EC‚UC¥EHE£i 8ewFGhs!G¥EjgF—4m&€§£€CÉeUw©mG¥EXxeƒÄ@` A 8 t A T P I B D B i7 i S T P I7 B I S i B … I A V 87 6 5 † 8 P B „ V A 9 r b iƒexpocopE!UH£HQ§khE©UC€§HH&wH£§uHQ¥ˆF&GG£g¥P I A ` 5 ` n P I B h z B 8 … h 8 D S‘ D B T S 9 I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B 6 P B i7 V B i S i B 8 h 87 B „ A 6 8 i I A 6 ‡ 5 b f ‡ 5 l B 6 P t B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P I UH£Rwy§H£§ƒ—Q©4!Qof£¥pXwG£xH¨Hp%©€¥w4’ ‚ €y c 6QF" x † I S7 P A P7 v7W 8 P7 i I A ž  d t ˜ d t ­ t d dX¥eugwQ¥€ƒe0sU2pUdFC§g‡ B v B 6 V 8 W S D P I S V D B T S 9 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P 8 B …7 D V 8 B i I S7 P V B 8 87 6 wGuH©X¥H!§GRx©UC¼”Fˆ©f¥rGC¥EHG£m§¥EGHR£©5 4.1 Protocol Description CS(Carrier Sensing) Zone for RTS A B Transmission Range for RTS C Transmission Range for CTS D E CS(Carrier Sensing) Zone for CTS F s ‚ y 6Q€ t s F 87 8 B i S I I S7 P A I7 P 8 B i i I A B V D h S 8 I B B T P B … I S7 P A h I B P P sGFp‚X¥e&¥”E£mƒevG¥£§HmGG©qEC‚X¥eFE¥HeA W A I |7 8 t P 8 D7 ª † 8 I S7 P 9 v h 8 8 A S T P 8 B „ A v i S 6 P B v 87 6 §ƒ§H%U”¥gpËG§&¥FwHHe…4†Ey§f$p£¥Ewv©5 † ‡ 5 jQ•l B 6 P 8 B q7 B V B D I S7 P A I7 P 8 B i B 6 P I B 6 T i B I7 v D B P B i 87 I S7 £¥gGX&EGG¥mX¥e&¥”E£€¥G£QwUw¥E¥x£s‚XH8 f 87 v 8 I A D P r b ` B 6 P D S‘ D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P B 6 P t tW D AW7 v7 ”wHeuHÃcs¥r§¦EUCggwH£§uHR£¥2!g¥e&wF‡ †p S P W A h z B W B q BW D B T S 9 A | I7 8 h ` 5 ` n 8 P7 v 8 I A D ¥C§ƒ!UjGXGcx©UCgRH¢p•ˆh¥gwH£§uHP B V D h S 8 B 6 P t I B 6 5 † 8 I S7 P W h v7 8 D h S I7 d S P W A h z B  P B G¥FXHg¥j#G£©gGX¥sA £RH‰FXy&Ry¥peƒ!UgEH8 B „ † ̞ ™ d‡ S P D AW7 v7 8Ê P I A P 8 I S V A 87  i I A 6 P | I B D P 8 W A —%xksU¥ce&w&HeR!§u”§Gw‰§y¥§£G¥H”peƒI ‘†‡ „ W‘‰‡ …y † 6 CkUp& " UpCX‚!sp2Fsƒw" ˜ ” ‹ • œ ˜  ’ (  Ž Š ˜ Š Š Ž  ˜”  ˜” ‹¥ • œ Š Ž œ ˜ ” œ œ” " œ ˜ – Ž ‹ Š Ž Ž Š  ” Ž ‹ œ ˜ ” œ”¥¥  ’ Š “ ¦ƒ2¦Uk2U£sw0 2CkUU¦—#2ƒsGps…pƒƒkeG‚pCkUk¦¦CX~2r¥ 6 ™˜ š ‹– Ž•’’ – " ˜ ” ¥’ – ¡ p– f£€2yX#m( w2CkU¦œk”¦¥CX0 ¥ Š Š¥ Ž Š Œ  £C$ k€pr£& Š “ ‹ ‹ – ¦ ¥ #Uv~§¢£ #¦ppFGˆ( 4 CkUUk—#pƒsG‹ p2¢…EkU‹ p¦”  ˜” ™ ˜ Š œ ˜ ” œ œ” " œ ˜ – Ž Œ Š ˜ – Š ‹ –” ” ˜ œF2d2xGF2G{F2Ë¡ 6 '¥ h(f¼2¦e2pw2CkUƒ( ƒ– Š ™  ˜ Š œ Š “ ‹ ˜ Š “ ) ¨   ¥  š  ˜” Ž • ™ ¥ – ˜ ” œ ˜ ŠGpFG‰ƒ2( wƒkUU¦—#psGv§¨ ¤¢£ #Uv2¦e2pQ%  œ ˜ Š œ ‹  ˜ – " ˜ ” œ œ” " œ ˜ – Ž ‹ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¥ Š “ ‹  ˜” Ž • ™ ™ ˜ pƒ–Ëg‚epU”" 2Cy1 2¦UpFGfpkesXm¦gF2d2p0 pr£&  œ – “ ’ • œ Š ˜   ˜” œ ˜ Š œ Ž Š” Ž Ž – ’ ˜” œ Š ™  ˜ Ž Š Œ  ‹ —#œpƒ–sGm#GUFXF2˜ " y" p¦—" 2U#¦UpxFGGk—#2ƒsG‹ ” " ˜ Ž ‹ ( Ž – œ œ Š ’ Š • ” ˜” Š “ ‹  ˜” œ • ™ Š ‹ ‹” " œ ˜ – Ž Š – sŽ£›)¨'‚p– h(fvXpk#76  2d2Erpƒeƒp& RGk—"  ™ ˜  ¥  š Š ’ ˜” ¦ Š ™  ˜  ‹ ‹ Š  ’ – – œ ‹” š Š ™  ˜ Š œ  ¢2d2$GC& & #¦ y" #§Uœ ¨ 8R" !s2CkQ • Š Š “ ’  ¦  ¥ Š Ž • ”    © §  s 2ƒsG‹ œ ˜ – Ž 8 A tÌ §xy Ê W B q BW D B T S 9 i B P P7 v 8 I A D P i I A oEyG@E©UC†G¥HwH£§uHfƒ§t eGyGW tW B q B D B T S 9 i B q7 B V B D I S i B 8 A … EsCrUyGGE¥RXRGH§ƒQ 8 B P AW h VW A V P7 t ‡ 5 b B 6 E¥e&GeUgyjQ©h¥P 8 B q7 B V B D B i S I B V D h S 8 B 6 P I B 6 „ † Ì GyGEG¥ˆ£p£‰G¥£§H%¥€G$0x! W B q BW D B T S 9 P A GXG[email protected] Ê W A h 8 h 8 A ‡ 5 b A | I7 i I B 8 t … 8 i I S 9 8 B D P7 t ‡ 5 l I A 8 B q7 B §Hh§†Q©ss££ƒEHfphFƒ§CHG¥hg£CQ•€§QEyGGV f B D B i S I I S7 P A I7 P 8 B i A I B 6 T t B q7 P A I D B PW A i I S V B 8 B 6 P I [email protected]€X¥sƒ¥”G£g€EQpXy¥e¥E¥g§€ƒ§GGHˆ£¥w4’ CS for DATA CS for ACK f 7 B 7 V B t D A 8 B B v h v7 I7 v B 6 P 87 ‰ §|H8giGyqGBGG¥DrHe¥8HGEVGI~g&£w©¥0ˆ W‡ „ a ¥xQT BDB 6 „  W‰‡ „ a  Fy ‚ ‡† 6d€ y £‘†‡ „ WW‰ˆ…y ‚ € 6dFy y „4 ‘†‡ „ WW‰ˆ…y ‡† ‚ €y 6QF¥      © § ¨ E ‘†‡ „ WW‰ˆ…r ‡† y ‚ y 6Q€ V tW I S WW7 T P7 S 8 g£XQpg%H†Ì P A 8 P7 v 8 I A D P n I B 6 TÊ n ‘ S B I S Æ | I7 8 I B s0¥gwH§uHÉgG£Q¦Åƒe©§G%£&H£GH8 D B7 D D A V B 6 P I7 87 ` B i S © † I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P “ f n B 6 P ‘ S I S7 P A D h E¥HsU¥aˆÅg£pˆc#§HH&wH£§uHÉqˆ£¥•eX¥euF£i B 6 P D S‘ 8 I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P D7 B 6 P D B‘ B i WW7 T 8 B i S I B 8 B 6 P S 8 t ‡ 5 ¥se¦R£XHHwHeuHRgG¥gE¦x£@&QrG£p£†HE¥HjQ©b B 6 P B q7 B V B D  i I A ª i I A t ‡ 5 l B 6 P B q7 B V B D b i I A Ç t tW B q7 ¥syGEG¥{¤§x—§#jQ•s£¥RyGGG¥¡—ƒ§¨2!gGy¥P f V B 9 8 B D ‡ 5 b i I A ‡ 5 l B 6 P P7 v 8 I A D P “ i I A n I B 6 „ † “ B i S EECHG¥fQ©€ƒ§fQ•ˆ£¥hwH£§uH€§Å€G£¢£h‰FpI S P P B „ V A 9 A P7 v 8 I A D P S P 8 P I A T n B i S I B 8 S 9 9 h 8 t ­ B D h |7 ª I ¥QEyu§ƒwˆgwH[email protected]!§h¨r£p£rH§C£HjFg¥£Xp7 t§&£w§£E§•dXHHwH§uH¢@[email protected]@£¥#efX¥euF£c¥P BW 9 v A u B D S ª † I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P r b ` f ` 5 ` n B 6 P ‘ S I S7 P A D h i B 6 D S‘ 8 3 ` © D7 B 6 P P B 8 t B 6 P t ‡ 5 b D S ‡ 5 l I A B q7 B V B D 8 B i S I D S e¦Qˆ4ˆ%gG£¥ˆEH€E¥ƒCQ©r§€QoeRyGEG¥cGFpˆ§C… fFXG£r£¥€G£¢©#§¥eƒ¥”GF¥au§U¥s¥cE©UC€He¥HGGEI 6 |7 B I B 6 P I B 6 „ † I S7 P A I7 P 8 B i B 6 P 6 V A B D S P D B T S 9 t D A 8 8 B V B v h v7 I7 v B 6 P | I7 8 h P I B 8 B D A 8 P B „ V A 9 r b ` i I A ` 5 ` n i I £Rww¥†H!GHf¥e¥xyxeƒÎ@—§ƒpoc—§A | I7 8 h P I B 8 B D A ‡ 5 b i I A ‡ 5 l t B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P I £&H£[email protected]§RQ•XXwGuHHp%©@¥g4’ t p ‚ € 6QFy 6 2CkU¦œ¦”k¥CX$FGƒpsXpk˜” œ ˜ ” ¥  ’ ™ Š œ – Š Ž ’  ‹ ™ – Š¥ ˜ – ’ Ž Š Œ  ‹” " œ ˜ – Ž ‹ ˜” œ Š ’ ˜ Š Ž Š ¡” š G‚ƒpk$XfpgF& k—#psG…¦sFX2£spo¢€ s2ƒkQ Š Ž • ” † P h 9 6 | h S D 6 P | I7 i A D | B i t 8 I S7 87WW S V i B 8 A B D V I U££§X¥F¥RFXu§E£jG£XH&§GaUH§G¥E7 S P i A BW I A V B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P t T SW B … I7 AW 9 u B T S I B T 8 ¥€§Ua§UcwGuH…Hp%©%¥‰UGC†&e&FExU‰©c` † B v B 6V XwG£xH8 i B 8 S 9 S D 9 B 6 P i I A b ’ ‡ ` Ç ‘ S I S7 P AW h v7 8 D h S I7 B q7 P A [email protected]X¥e&£RHr£X—&Ry¥eƒI f D B PW A 87 6 P B 8 h B „ † P A v D S‘ ‡ 5 b B 6 P S P I S7 P A V 7 i S HE¥gew¥†H£€—‚Usf¥§kmQ©v£¥y¥mX¥sUƒg£pwv t I A B D7 h z B D P S I 8 B S i B q7 P A I D B PW A 87 6 5 † t P7W7 … A … S D 9 6 |7 !eQ¥£!U¥§•G!FQy¥eƒ¥x¥e£©!4g§X¥FsX6 tW D7 A‘ A 6 P7 T BW … 7W B D B … S P tW B „7W 87 P7 t D B q B T S } † | I S D g¥g§¦€¥gQˆeA G¥QC¥sgGy©©gpUEyE©UˆFX¥hT B D A 8 I S7 P 9 v h 8 8 A B 6 P I B 6 T I S7 P A V7 I h v v S V BW … A7W B D I ¥ew£X¥£w£HH§a£¥ÉG£QX¥eU£Rw§Gae&&E¥£h I7 PW h 8 B D t A v 6 V A S D 9 9 A 87 6 y£HG¥¢Gf¡u§X¥£ey&£©5 d&§HG¥F¥xU£ƒEFU¥£9 † iW S 6 8 B D 6 P i B I  B i B D B v S 8 T SW B … B … S P i B v h 8 8 A 87 D B q7 B V B D B 6 P P A W B q BW B 87 S wXH…sGCQC‰¥gGwHH§EX&EGG¥©¥•eGyG@HXI t i I S V B ‡ † 8 I S7 P V B D7 i 6 P S … I7 B v A 8 B 6 P B … S P i B v h 8 8 jƒ§GGFG§¥EG¥g£m¥eC&fwe¥€£¥€Cv¥—GwHH§A RTS A A DATA B B ACK CTS C C D D 4.2 Deficiency of the BASIC Protocol A CS(Carrier Sensing) Zone for RTS B Transmission Range for RTS C Transmission Range for DATA for ACK D E Transmission Range for CTS F G CS(Carrier Sensing) Zone for CTS H † ` 5 ` n D S‘ W B q BW D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P B P A7 D 9 S D 9 9 A B 6 P | I rp•cce¦jGyG@EsCQgwH£§uH‰¥e&¥£§¥££§‰£¥R7 f P A v7 P 8 B I7 B P A D h V V A B … I A V i S 6 P B v 87 6 P t I S7 P A D B i7 8 I S Hef¥”GR&Q¥su£GGeQCs§Ggp¥xw•£¥!#X¥suE£&H§GV S P I7 I B „ A P 87 Ç D B q7 B V B D B 6 P P A S7 P A D B 87 S I f S PfW A I |7 8 B 6 ¥pfGyeuÉQxyGGG¥Q¥©ss¥eucH&§‚§¥ g§XH@¥P B V I7 ‡ † EFc! W B q BW D B T S 9 | I7 8 h ` 5 ` n 8 i I B 8 ` B i S GXG%EsCw£Hˆ2occFƒGHÅrFpI tjQ©p&EGG¥sE¥P @•a£p£w¥Q©€¥gÉv ‡ 5 b | I7 q7 B V B D D B ‘ ` † ` B i S I S P ‡ 5 b 8 P7 I7 8 B 7 V B 9 8 I B 6 P Ç B i S © † Ç B i S I P A W B q BW B 87 S I P I B D D h GEGCHG¥¨†£pˆpc€£pRehEyG€HX£R!G¥HFGV B 6 P P I h S V V A S P I7 | I7 „ A P £¥Qp£XGE§f¥!sp§ur 8 B I7 v D B P B i B D h i B V S D Ew¥E¥EFg¥F£UE!¥£9 87 6 5 †ž ™ d v S D ©€ ssg‡ §¥k‘ | I7 P A v7 P 8 B D S‘ B D h i B V S D 9 B 6 ¥ef¥”Gr§ks¥£FUG!¥£R¥P T S D D S … I A V B „ † Ç D B q7 B V B D B 6 P P A W B q BW B 87 S I i I A U¥H§CweUh§c©xyGGG¥©£¥osGXGcHX£Rƒe!t ‘†‡ „ W‘‰‡ † y ‘†‡ „ W‘‰‡ … †y ‘†‡ „ WW‰ˆ…y ‡† ‚ &Q€ y s psGws£‚¤¨ œ ˜ – Ž ‹ Š Ž – ¦ ¥ 6 FC$ ¥ Š Š¥ Ž Š Œ  k€pgF& CkUU¦w#pƒsGsGF2ƒkpy2Us£…FGGkw" ˜ ” œ œ” " œ ˜ – Ž ‹ ‹ œ Š “ ” “ Š “ ‹ ‹ – ™ Š ‹ ‹” ™ ˜ – ¦ ¥ £ Š Š “ ’ pƒm¤¢ w" 2eUœ ¨ 8¦ g¦ ¤s2ƒkQ   ¥ £ Š Ž • ” f S † tW P I B h z B D‘ 8 8 BW W B q BW D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P B 6 P B 8 A B D V I !¥!G£!U¥kQHG#EyG@E©UCQgwHeuHˆ¥‰H§G¥E7 WQT ho€H£§UGC—4•s§kgd §X€H£†@gwys¥Fw&hQT W7 Y b § B 8 h A V B … ‡ ª ’ “ D S‘ 8 ® ­ È B 8 h B T ‘7 B q S D 9 v7 WW7 Y b § ‘ S B V I A v D S‘ D B 9 B 6 P P A 6 P B P S © † 8 ™ d ™ S P W A h z B 87 ‡ ª ’ ho#§QG£§f¥§kHECh¥sƒ¥h¥§c0Gd Upr¥p§pGg”“ S 8 t B P A D A P A i P 8 B T SW B 6 P 8 A B P A D P7 … 8 9 … Y ™ B 8 h B T t I S7 P A HX¥eu€uss”G©Uw¥§€¥eugr£€v†Hf©0dX¥e&W f h v7 8 D h S I ’ † 8 9 … Y d 87 B P A D A P A i P 8 B T SW B 6 P I B 6 T 8 ® ­ £RHFXy4gG€wss¥eufueg”GU&g¥yGQ%d eXÈ S P W A h z B 87 ‡ ª ’ “ tž ™ ‡ i D A i I A P 8 d d† ™ ˜ – B 6 P S P | I7 i D S V V ¥h§ƒ!Uf‚4•c s§™ ˆue£ƒeu”w§py§v¥w¥—£ueGG@` ¦ f " f 8 f f § f § f f § f  ‚ y &Q€ 1 †W S V S P S D 9 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P ‘ S t V I B7 V  B i B q S … A B 6 P ‘7 P I B i e§G!¥§¥F¢”Fˆ©‰¥2§€EE&EƒEFysC§‰£¥†t ¥!GF&7 Pemi F‚¥§©R”§ƒUEyGUˆ$ Us%pUˆpQXgxe¥EGwpU¥8 S I 7 i „ D S T P 8 A 9 t D B q B T S } †ž  d t ˜ d t ­ t d‡ t | D B I B | I7 q A D S‘ i B D B i7 8 I S V I B B … 8 A 6 B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 5 † Ì † ­ I S7 P V B ‡ I §kfG¥E£&H[email protected]©oxyÈ F€§&¥xGF€7 I T S 6 8 8 AÊ P h 9 6 | h S D 6 P | I7 i A D | B i t 8 I S7 87WW S V S P B I S D 9 B D S Qs£Hs§ †££§X¥F¥y££XueG£hGXHXGy¥€£X¥F†¥ewv 87 B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P P A 6 P 8 B P A V7 i I7 I S7 8 8 h V 87 i B q S … A B 6 cwEuH‚Hp%©ˆ¥©sƒ¥E¥eU£€XHH£GH£%XeCe%£©5 ‚ y 6Q€ " † n P A r b ` B 6 P ‘ S I S7 P 9 B V B D B 6 P 6 P7 gQeƒ@‰¥peaX¥FGGG¥%£¥€¥gQT B D B‘ D B P I7 I A V ¥EkHE¥!…§GË` §¥kɧHH&wH£§uHH©eGyE&€EUC†x©UW v S D‘ I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P A S 8 tW B q BW D B T S 9 D B T S B 6 P P A I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P ` 5 ` n P n B 8 I B 8 P S I I A V ­ B D h |7 ª I7 £¥‰e—XHHwH§uH¨p•ˆ‰8 IRHGHeeU€w¥FXpƒ` B i S I t b ’ ‡ ` Ç | I7 8 † B i S I B V D h S 8 B 6 P P A r b ` I A ‘ S I S7 P 9 B FpFcHp%©sHˆ6 XFp‰G¥FXH%£¥he¼@ae§€X¥£GEV f B D B 6 P 6 P7 T B V I B D B‘ D B P I7 | I7 V h i S D P I7 t … B 8 D S T I S7 P A h P7 8 B 6 E¥ˆ£¥€¥gQ‰GG¥x¦HE¥!R£&E£p¥H!€!rH¥e©€§¥eƒ¥gH‰£¥P 8 B „ A v b ’ ‡ ` Ç t D B q B T S } † Ì ­ B D h |7 ª I7 “ B i S IÊ B i S I I S7 P A 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SP £˜ vSD I T S ifD B T S 9 D SÊ D B T S QU£qHE©UCr§e†EsC9 RFefQeÄ¥X¥P ¤Ud X¥kˆƒXS v h v7 u A v ‘ S £ ˜ « S £ ˜ v S D‘ Ì I f D B T S 9Ê D B T S 9 P h 9 P h S B 8 A B D V I7 S P i B D7 h z B D B v7 P i I A t | I7 8 I B Hx©UCeˆx©UC•£¥FXQH§G¥E%¥gG¥£!U¥©w¥gƒep££&H£GH8 D B7 D D A V D S‘ B P A h z B i A B … iW h S 6 8 8  d tž ™ ‡ S P | I7 i D S V V E¥HsUw§k†¥sƒ!U£§aCm&X£Hwd sˆ‚UX™ ‚¥y£&Fu§GEc` † | I7 8 I B 8 D B7 D D A V W A V7 8 t 6 9 D S‘ i B D7 h z B D B v7 P B 6 P I A 6 P D B | D A FHGHcE¥HeG#eUH£!£ce¦†G¥£!U¥cw¥%¥€§¥cE§¥e&W B … W h S 6 Cvi £X£H8 P A i B P P7 v 8 I A D P 87 ` 5 ` n B 6 P 6 V7 6 T W A q D B P I svU¥HgwHeuHˆ¡p•ˆ¥vuQ2eX¥E¥!7 B 6 P t S 8W ` † I S7 P A D h i ‡ ª ’ “ t D B q B B V I S i B 8 A B D V I7 87 ` 5 ` n D S ¥££Hc#§&¥su£F€”†HEyGG£XaUHeU¥EQˆp•cˆe¦‘ D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P B 6 P t I S7 P A D h i ‡ ª ’ “ D S‘ D B‘ B i tW I S tW P V B D D S x©UC%gwHeuHr£¥j#X¥su££v4•e¦%x¦EFy£Xg¥EG¥HeGV P7 B i S V B i P S I P h … I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P A B 8 I B 8 I A V P A 6 P 8 B i S I B 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A P S P B 6 P t X¥£w£H§G—e¥EE©¦gD£§He‰e!Xwe©eu§¥s¥!… i B i7 q7 i 8 T U£&p£0QUS £¥y&e‰!%U¥EX&GFcus!eu§¥¥2eU¥e&W B 6 P WW A t … i B D B q7W B i A P A i W A P S P B 6 P 8 A i B P A f h VW A V 87 87 6 5 † Ì BW h S D B 9 i B D B q7W B i 8 P7 … Y t D SÊ I S7 P 9 v h £E&eU0p©xU&£X4 ECU¥EyGF0¥g€XU§efX¥FwH8 f I S V t | D B I B P7 v 8 I A D P ‘ S P7 I h D B 9 i B D B q7W B i A P A i W A P S £§Gve¥EGˆgwH§uH•§ˆgˆECvU¥EyGF†us§ue25 6 30 œ Œ  ¥ wF0¦ 29 q rg 28 “ ‹” Œ œ Š ™  ˜ UkwsF2d2 26 27 g ( ¥  &‹ ”– “ ¨  !ƒ C!G…¦˜2g i 2 3 4 Š Ž • ” s2ƒkQ 0 1 † „ D S T P B I B 6 P I7 8 T WW A D B q S P h 9 6 | h S D 6 P B P A | B D | | C¥§4E£%¥†&QQUS [email protected]§§¥£¥‰¥eXG¥§§c` † 8W S V S P S D 9 b ` G[email protected] B 6 P B P A hW A q B S P 8 V7 D P B v S T P | I7 T SWW S‘ B 6 P B 8 h B „ † d d† ™ ˜ £¥†¥sƒ§§G¥RG¥HEw©qQU&§¦f¥fH€‚X§&!y§– 8 A WW B T 8 A t ˜ ® Y b § t Y b § t b ’ ‡ ` Ç i B P AW h v7 8 B q A 6 B §RG©§fpy€howho%c”F%ÅU¥e&£RHyUƒ—„ † yH §Xw¥P H y—§¥k%G£§u”£i ˜  ™ S ˜ ® v S D‘ B V I A P 87 B 6 P t D A q B T t 8 I S7 P AW h v7 8 D h S I ’ † v D S‘7 I h 87 – B D h |7 ª I ¥rHe§cyG§¥e&g&Ho£§s4pa¥§¦g£•&[email protected]pf&7 8 D7 A 9 B i S I P I B V A  i A I B B T P B … B V I A P 87 i B 6 5 † 8 T ¥geƒFp0!GE§H#XrGG4ECoGeu”£©£©0GQUS w©uHP V 7 AD 8 B P A V7 i I7 8 B i S I S T P I B B T P B … T S D D A B 6 P i I A t BW V D7 V A 8 E¥eU£GFpr©4sEG©qEC¢U¥Hec¥sƒeFXG¥gG©§A I T S 68 BD A 8 B i S © † 8 T QUHw¥egGFpˆ†GQsS X£f&§HaXm¥gQ‰GFpfFÈ 9 S 6 BW | I7 8 ˜ È 6 P7 T 8 B i S I d ‘ S 8 P 87 8 I S V 6 V7 6 T t t | SW S 9 S P I7 A 6 V D h S 8 T S 6 8 – B D h |7 §r¥”HXExQ2!§X§CX¥—§xrFXrQs£H€€¥£§&pª £ » ²Á ² ± ²¿ º¹ · ¡ ¤¥§Fx‚v¦§£¢¨ E ‚ 6Q€ y † 8 B7 GGX| f SW S 9 S P 6 P S … D S‘ 8 I S7 P AW h v7 8 D h S I7 e&§CX¥¥§C0e¦p£X¥e&gHp£§gƒH eX7 ˜  ™ 8 W B q BW D B T S GyE&pE©UC9 P A B | I A D I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B 6 5 † B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P ‘ S D S7 q A sX£§u…§&HHwH£§uHa©~§wGuHÃHFˆ©v£¥‰§€§pUƒ6 f B … B 6 P i I A P 8 D B i I h S P D B i D S I7 t | SW S 9 S P I7 A 6 V B 6 P D S‘ 8W B q B 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– t ˜ ­ t ˜ ® ‘ S 8 B | I A D I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B 6 P S P i I S 9 8 B D D S tW 6 | h S D 6 V7 6 T t „ v † d – ™ i I A t „ v †  ¬ t „ v † ­ È t „ v  g£X§¥€uQ!Åsr– XFe€§p¡sR– pXpÅsg­ F§pÅssd t¡ss­ pUdÅssX™ pÅsw– £FÅssy® p£ÅsRC¡s‰pGGB „ v † ˜ d t „ v  † ¬ t „ v † ® t „ v  † È t „ v ™ t „ v d t 8W f q BW D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P ˜ d D B i7 8 I S V B T t t | SW S 9 S P I7 A 6 V B 6 P D S !GEUCpgwH[email protected]E£&H§G©§!eXXC§¥r§xo¥peª † 8 B7 | SW S 9 S P v S i I A GGX§XCX¥Ã§£§uD i I A I7 A 6 V BW 9 v7 8 A 6 P S … B 8 h B T t 8 B7 | SW S 9 S P „ D S T P B I D S ƒe§xwwH€—¥§CwH£€GGXX§CX¥v¥§4E£geª c C c C f f † B v7 P I S7 P AW h v7 8 ‘ S 8 i I S V B 8 ˜ ™ D S‘ 8 I h D I S7 P W h v7 Xw¥†§&¥s&RH[email protected]£¥€X¥sA £RH8 6 V A “ † 8 I h D ˜ È ‘ S B | A D B q A B 6 P B D A 8 PW h 8 B D I S7 P AW h v7 8 WW ` †W B q B xeopG£¥cXje©XeuEyUh£¥©¥e¥gHG¥gX¥e&gHF@eGyGW D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P P 8 B 6 |7 6 B 6 P P A t x©UC‰gwHeuH‰”G§&£s¥‰s#wH eXgsX£§u€£&H£GHE¥D ˜   87 B | I A D | I7 8 I B 8 D 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B 6 § b § D S‘ i B 8 EFXU£$©p yx[email protected]¥ƒUx£XG$©p e¦€UH£h B P A D B 6 P I A 6 P D B P A B D | 87 i B P P7 v 8 I A D P 87 A P A i B 6 P 6 V7 6 T P A B P A ¥suo¥§¥E¥eU¥e&U¥HgwHeuHpcue£h¥u&£Q0eQ¥suD B 6 P I B 6 T t B V I A P 8 I7 D S ª †WW B T 8 A I S7 P A V 7 V B 9 8 d d† ™ ˜ – “ “ “ £¥—G£Q0XGeu”g§eGreɧ¥eUEGCH€§py§Å•o4’ B 6 P S P i B7W 9 9 A B … I A V W B q BW D B T S 9 D B T SW Ì tWW A7 P I B P S 9Ê P A P 8 B £¥g¥wUe‰C€§UjGyE&Qx©UC@E©Uog&e&¥pE¥§Cee@”E¥D i I A W B q BW D B T S 9 D B 6 |7 6 A P A P B „ V A 9 A ‘ S P D A 9 | I7 P P7 v 8 I A D ƒ§©GyGwEUCsE£XvfssEXxeƒv%esHsƒ¥HgwHeuHP ‘ S 6V A SD 9 9 A i B8 S 9 SD 9 B 6P t DB qB T S e¨xey¥F§¡UHXC§¥£¥rUEyE©Uˆ} dusƒeu”¥P X¥D ‘ † iD A i I AP8 B 6 v S tW P I B D B i7 i i B 8 h 87 ‡ ª ’ “ I7 B D B 6 T d d† ™ ˜ – “ “ “ ’ ‘ S I S7 P A7 D A g¥!G¥Ejg£UH£R”‚&E¥EQ†XpXX¼o•”@eɧ&¥s&¥e§q A 8 B P A hW A q B D B 9 A 9 87 6 P t D B7W D A B i B 8 8 h V 87 i 8 A t P A 6 P WW A V B fE¥eƒeXGfxC§ƒw£¥hUE&¥sUÉGHHGH£€ehUe¥@eUG@l † Y b § ‘ S I S7 8 D B q B q S … who§€XH¥Ey‰ysCeA B 6 P S P i B D A 9 v S V 8 A t | D B I B B D S v B v h 8 I S V WW7 T I S7 P A7 D A q 87 6 £¥ˆ¥rG¥eƒw§G§R§¥E£G©¥ew©wH£XG£&QR§¥e&¥e§o£©5 † ˜ ® Y b § 8 A I S7 P 7 D A q 87 6 P S P D B‘ B D B „ † I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P ` 5 ` Fy€ho§wX¥sA ¥sXˆ&£¥€¥‰x¦E¥#§HH&wH£§uH¡p•cn | I7 D h i 8 ˜ ® D S‘ 8 ˜ ¬ d t D B q B D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P B 6 P B 8 A B D V I7 B ¥£F# y§kpd §UwHEyGEUC0gwH§uHo¥©H§G¥E©T B D B 6 T 8 I S7 P AW h v7 8 D h S v D S‘ D B 9 S 8W A B T t Y b § ‘ S I S7 P 9 v h ¥E£Qr£X¥e&£RHr£X›¥§kHECH§€©pwho@§—X¥£w£H8 f I S V t | D B I B B 6 P | I7 P A v7 P 8 B I7 B q7 P A q D B 8 I S V B D S v B … S £§G$e¥EEv¥¥sf&¥”E¢&y¥sX¥EH£XG¥ewyC#5 † I S7 P 9 v h 8 I S V t | D B I B | I7 V h i B #§&¥FwH£XG†§¥E£Gs£&E£G¥D BW7 6 T d d† ™ ˜ – ‘ S B V I A v D S‘ D B 9 B 6 P 6 V P A v S P 87 D B 9 A 9 87 6 P I Q€XpXXc§wE§f¥e¦HECf£¥wu¥efv¥grECeƒr&£¥7 W A S | D h ° † D B7W D A B i B 8 8 h V 87 i 8 A t D h V V S I A V I S7 P A I7 P 8 B i B 6 §y§f£ˆ¨UE&¥sU…UHH£GH£†§@UFGG!$eU¢X¥e¥”G££¥P t … i B q7 B V B D | I7 B … ` 5 ` n 6 P7 T 8 I S7 87WW S V t tWW A V 7 V B 9 ‡ † tW B P BW !wUyGGE¥£GCÉp•c€¥gQ©£XH&§Gp!g&eUƒgGECF•!gG¥E£9 f v S V 8 I S7 87WW S V P I B q B D 9 P S I 8 B S i t d d† ™ ˜ – B „7W P 8 h  t Y b § P A 6 s§GQXHXG•!GyG¥F©e©G!Fƒ§XpXXcy©”4Qwh©e¥P B P S I t D B q B T S } † t | D B I B 8 8 BW 8 B 8 h P h … t d d† ™ ˜ – S P BW … A D A 9 v S ¥e#UEyGUˆr!§¥E£G‰HG‰GH£%££0X§py§€¥g&£§usƒwXEV P h 9 6 | h S D 6 P B q B7 6 V A I A V i I A B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P ‘ F£X§¥£¥‰yG£xe§Ua§wG£xH¢Hp%©r¥0eS E&£X¥F9 v BW … S D B 6P 8 B v S VDB q £¥Gw§G¥EysS hodX¥eGƒg£pwc&£wH%ysC§ˆ¥f¥$„ Y b § t I S7 P A V 7 i S v BW 9 v7 8 B q S … A B 6 P 6 P7 † I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B 6 P ‘ S 8 ˜ dXHHwHeuH%¥pe@d e™ P 8 AW B 6 P D S‘ ”§&%£¥ce¦g P A ` 5 ` n 8 P7 v 8 I A D P S 8W A B i S I B 6 5 † Ì ¬ B D eˆpoch¥gwHeuHsH&e£p£‰©oxXr¥Fh f |7 ª B B 8Ê t I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P ` 5 ` n | I7 D h i 8 8 B V S D 9 87 6 P 8 P A B 9 B D P §p‰GHeddXHHwH§uH$p•cg£&¥F£@HGG!¥Fh¥©¥eGCG¥hg7 t#E©QGd XGge¦aXHHwHeuH€Gy§‰¥ˆe¦%¥sƒ!U£§pGXGW I B 6 5 † 8 ˜ « d D S‘ I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P I B q7 | B 6 P D S‘ B P A h z B i A W B q B D B T S 9 A S P D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P B 6 P 8 B V h i B D i I A 8 ˜ ™ D S‘ EsCf€¥%EsCˆgwH§uH¥cGGFU¥aƒe‰d eg§¦w Ps¢poc¥HgwHeuH¥Heu”@£p£cG¥FXH¢•#§¥eu£Fw”“ A ` 5 ` n | I7 P P7 v 8 I A D P 8 P D A P 8 B i S I B V D h S 8 ` † I S7 P A D h i ‡ ª ’ I A 6 P D B P D S 6 8 87 6 V7 6 T t 8 ˜ d ™ 87 §ƒ¥‰x¥H§H—uQpGd Gpg† P A 8 I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B 6 er§&HHwH£§uHR£¥P I B B T P B … W A q D B P I7 B 6 P t 8 h 6 5 † I S7 P A D h i 8 ˜ ™ A D S‘ 8 ˜ « d t D B q GG©qECyeX¥E¥!•¥UGp©p#X¥su££p# §@e¦d# XGsHEyEB f 6.1 Simulation Model y y  y y 8 B Æ7 8 P B „ V A 9 | I7 t D A q 8 I S7 P AW h v7 8 B v S 8 i B v D S‘ D B 9 B „Ê † i B GGHˆEyu§ƒ€FHe§%£X¥e&gHgw§HyUw¥e¦HECr¦sdU f7 V B 9 8 B 87 T D B 6 P S 8 8 BW I h 8 B P t … ™ d  87 B Æ7 8 P B „ V A § † B P A D P7 gGGCHyHQHE¥e€HE&£wG¥p!—s!avGH€Eyu§0¡X¥su€g£… W B I I A 6 V B 6P D S‘ 8 9 … Y ™ B8 h B G£§xw¥ve¦a£€ÉH——„ E!™ {§&H£G¥pEyHGG¥gQT †ž d ‡ I S7 8 I B P u B 8 8 BW B D7 6 Y b B 6P 6 7 T Ì A – … † ™f8 IÊ ™f8 I B8 h B T t 8 I 7P W h 78 D S h€£¥¥PQ‰y§ƒGd!””£e—4”fH€©G§S¥e&Ag&vHg§£ª E E ‚ € &QFy c C f ‚ € 6dFy f w ‚ € 6Q…y f f 6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 6.2 Simulation Topology t Ì AÊ « B D h |7 ª I7 8 B q D h V | I7 9 9 AW D B q S B 6 P v S ‘ I B B 8 8 A P h 9 6 | h S D 6 xX £o¥£§&pdGy¥FGh£§&¥Eys¥xX¥D %GGH#§#££X£X¥F¥P B P A | B D | | A BW … A D A 9 v S V B q B7 6 V A d d† ™ ˜ – i I A ˜ ® Y b § t Y b ¥eXG¥§§§feuewXGsXGu§€X!yXwƒevy€ho0who§ † tW 8 h S B I A PW h v7 8 P7 v 8 I A D P I A V 8 B i S I ‘ !gH§Geu£RH@gwH§uH€§UQGFpeS D B … v h I D B | D AW A t P D A 9 A D A‘ B D A 8 B i S I I B 6 T B 8 h A V B … 87 87 6 ECR£FxX¥e&f#UHeƒere¦g¥e%G£p£wG£QgH£§UGCˆ&‰£©5 † 8 B 8 A B D V I7 8 B v B 6 V 8 WW A ‘ S P h 9 6 | h S D 6 P B P A | B D | | A B 6 P t Ì AÊ « B D GGH§U¥x©GwG£xHj§p§££X£X¥£¥%¥syG¥eXe%¥Fxy F%¥Fh f |7 ª I7 8 B 8 A B D V I7 8 D S … 6 |7 B I S T P I B B T P B … B V I A P 87 i B 6 P 8 §prGH§G¥E¥§CpXG£a©qwGE©4xCwGeu”&Ff¥%@` Š “ #U‹ ˜” œ Š ™  ‰   Ž Š ¦…£##†w&$p•4 " • ‰ Š “ aÅ2g¥ Š ˜  ¨  ˜” œ ˜ Š Ž Š” Ž Ž – 2C•©2¦UpFd¦ pkee£r¨ ¦ ¦  §¨ 8R¥ kŠp4 ©¥ ¥ – † D B P AW t | SW S 9 S P v S i I A D B 6 P D B 7 8 I S V B „ † t | UE¥e&€§X§CX¥Í§£ƒeu%¥QEFi H£XGˆ!§§S fW S 9 S P I7 A 6 V B 6 P D S‘ 8 PW h 8 B D I S7 P AW h v7 8 B 6 P 8 8 h V 87 i P 8 D  B gXCX¥seƒu@£¥e¦¥£HG¥wX¥e&£RHh¥•HGH£”¥h—„ f EGCF•eG#§reXXC§¥‰&eƒu¥‰p§&HHwH£§uHdE¥e€e¦‘ ‘7 V B 9 ‡ †WW B T 8 A t | SW S 9 S P I7 A 6 V B 6 P I7 8 I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P D B 6 P S D S D AW7 v7 8 87 ™ BW … A 5 I7 I T S 6 8 B I S Æ | I7 8 I B 8 D B7 D D A V B 6 P I7 8 B i S s&&wHo&‰ˆ&£§p€fQUH@XEg£&H£GHhE¥HsUQ¥wGFpI ‘ S D B … v h I B 6 P ‘ S i I B D P B 6 5 † – B D h |7 ª I7 ® d B i S I D B i I B §RECR£F†¥c§mƒG¥H€£©$pv¥£§p$—Ew£p£fE£GH8 P A I S7 P 9 B V B D r b ` D S  d B i S I D B q7 B V B D P A I S7 P 9 B V B D ` 5 ` s‚X¥£GEG¥Ë@s§vs£pREyGGE¥Re‚§&¥FGGG¥ƒpocn 6 P7 T B D B‘ D B P I7 I A V 6 V7 6 T 8 B i S I ‘ S D B … v h I B 6 P 8 T S 6 8 BW … A ¥gQf¥x¦HE¥!§GxQ‰GFp@§%ECR£Fw£¥rQU£H€£§uP B 6 P 8 h 6 5 † – B D h |7 ª I7  d B i S I S P ® d B i S I v S D‘ I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D ¥•p©Fˆ¥£§&pf‰s‰£p£¥rEFp{X¥kw§&HHwH£§uHP B 6 P t 87 P A 6 P t I7 A 6 V B 6 P ‘ S D B P I B V B 6 P P A 8 D S … 6 |7 B I S T P I B B T ¥ƒGce¥#eƒur£¥0§cE¥!GG‰£¥cs%¥§Cp§&Ew©qaGG4P f B … I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P A 6 P7 T B D B‘ D B P I7 I A V P A 6 P 8 B i S I ‘ S D B … v h xCvXHHwH§uHR¥gQ¥E¦Hx¥pveU@eƒ¥QGFp•§QECgpI B 6 P 8 T S 6 8 ™ BW … A 5 † B I S Æ | I7 8 I B 8 D B7 D D A V B 6 P I7 8 B i S I ‘ S D B ¥@Qs£HRs£§pQ§XE€£HGHˆE¥HeU‰£¥a&@GFp•§cEC… f v h I B 6 P 8 T S 6 8 6 V7 6 T t ™ BW … A 5 B 8 h B T t 6 9 A D | B 6 P i I A P 8 D B i I sp•¥pQUHu&£Q§!hep©H£edeu§•¥%ƒeu”¥E£h S 5 † 8 B 8 A V P 8 S v I7 tW D S S 9 8 v D S‘ D B 9 B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P P h 2wGEH§U‰”§w—yg¥§!C‰w¥§kHECRwEuHˆHp%©R¥%F… ™ ˜ – pƒ#0 q ¡ ¨ ¤ ¡ ¨ ¤ Ž  œ Š $ Ž • ’ Š “ ‹ œ 4 20 ¢wƒ‚(£C#2Xa2Uc 0& 2¡  €G£svr£wm¥sGFGsp2Fƒ—F0¥  Š‹–Ž – ‹– ’ ¤–Ž‹ œŠ‹–ŽŠ ˜Š Œ BW h S D B 9 i B D B q7W B i A P A i W A P S 5 Ì … &£X4 xC†U¥EX&GFsue£peu§2©ƒeÊ 250 0 40 60 80 100 120 150 180 Distance between adjacent nodes (Meters) (  ¥  &  ƒkC!©¥ "  ™ ˜ – 2pƒw£ 2Ufƒ‚k£C$ •¡FrFcwpC §£‰¤gw£ @ Š “ ‹ Ž  œ¥ Š Š Ž Š Œ  ¤ œ • ” Ž –  ‹ – œ Œ ¥ 6.3.1 Chain topology: varying node distance “ ’ – §c P h 9 6 | h SD 6P BP A | BD | | ` Ì A F§§¥£¥‰¥eXG¥§§chy Ê  ŽŠ fp4 " 6.3 Simulation Results Mbits delivered per Joule (Mbits/Joule) • ‰  Š¥ – a!Rkp4 ©¥ p4 flows p3 flows p2 flows p1 flows Scenario p4 flows p3 flows p2 flows p1 flows Scenario Total Total 0 Aggregate Throughput (Mbps) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 40 802.11 BASIC PCM PCM40 50 50 50 50 11 10 16 19 18 18 14 10 18 23 15 14 26 27 60 5 3 1 80 100 120 150 180 Distance between adjacent nodes (Meters) 3 3 2 Aggregate Throughput (30 flows) 50 50 13 20 13 28 10 28 9 4 3 3 50 50 26 15 23 18 29 8 1 1 4 8 50 50 18 16 26 11 11 30 9 5 4 5 50 25 17 16 12 14 31 50 8 5 3 6 50 22 24 16 14 10 32 50 8 6 0 7 50 20 24 15 13 13 10 33 50 4 1 8 50 17 22 17 20 12 34 50 8 1 3 9 50 17 24 17 16 15 35 10 50 8 2 1 50 50 50 20 18 18 12 15 11 36 11 3 3 50 25 27 12 11 13 37 12 5 2 5 50 14 27 13 50 17 16 15 1 8 38 2 50 12 24 12 Interfering nodes 14 50 18 12 15 2 39 5 Distance (m) Number of 10 15 20 5 50 10 23 15 15 50 22 2 14 11 40 3 50 19 16 13 16 2 18 13 16 41 50 3 Mbits delivered per Joule (30 flows) 50 27 13 17 2 8 42 50 14 40 17 11 17 5 50 11 27 18 3 9 43 10 60 50 24 12 12 2 50 13 27 19 80 3 7 44 50 6 22 15 12 1 50 13 25 20 90 6 6 45 8 50 31 10 2 7 100 6 50 12 25 27 15 46 21 50 3 3 8 7 110 802.11 BASIC PCM PCM40 6 50 13 14 15 17 21 16 47 22 50 2 2 120 4 50 15 14 21 27 15 48 23 50 0 2 6 150 2 50 12 17 24 26 49 24 50 3 3 9 6 250 180 2 50 12 11 16 12 25 19 50 25 50 2 3 250 1 † I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P ` 5 ` dXHHwHeuHxp•cn | I7 D h i 8 ˜ ® D S‘ 8 ˜ ¬ d t D B q ¥£Fwd Xf§¦g# §U$HEyEB S P i B 8 A B D V I7 87 D B T S ¥UHeU¥EwwEUC9 PgwHeuHo£¥©¥EQÍhoj§s§¥e&¥e§ˆ•%y€hoRƒe!Gd e™ 7 v 8 I A D P B 6 P B D B 6 T Y b § ‘ S I S7 P A7 D A q A 87 ˜ ® Y b § i I A t 8 ˜ D§kh# §UHEyER S‘ 8 ˜ « d tD B q B S P i B 8 A B D V I7 87 D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P B D B 6 ¥€UH§U¥xQ&@EUCcgwH£§uH%¥E£QT BwGuHUHXC§¥£FXr&7 horeƒ¥•§UG@€G£€€%§f¥suD v B 6 V 8 i B 8 S 9 S D 9 D h S 8 Y b § P A 6 P WW A V B l † 8 9 … Y d ‘ S B P A B 6P P A V 7 ADP 8 BP ADB I B | T £¥hew#uHhG¥euE£GX~US xeoo!eXXC§¥†§xR€@QUS 6 V A “ † t | SW S 9 S P I7 A 6 V A I7 8 T ˜ È 6 P7 T 8 B i S I d È D S‘ 8 PW h 8 B D I S7 P AW h v7 8 B 6 P 8 T S 6 8 « B D h |7 §w¥gQ0G£p£QF§¦0¥gHE¥sX¥e&gH©¥QUHˆ@¥£§pª f f  f S ‚ €y 6QFb ‚ 6d€ y f 6 – ” ¥ŽŠ$  Q% 4" k˜¢& k–epC§v! 6 q i ( ¥ ‹ ”– “ ¨ ¢ ŠŽ • ” !ƒkƒ•& G‚k˜ƒ2g( £s2ƒkQ S P D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P B 6 P B 8 A B D V I7 tWW A V7 i S7 D B 9 8 B i S I t Y b § I ¥cx©UCˆgwH£§uH‰¥H§U¥xg&eU£p¥EC@G£p£Cwho4’ †pUs¥£§pv%w§¥%£¥h&hEwGuH€¥eCce¦©F£X§¥£¥%¥sy| ˜ d B D h |7 ª I7 B v A 8 B 6 P 87 8 B v B 6 V 8 6 P S … D S‘ P h 9 6 | h S D 6 P B P A f B D | | A B 6 P I B 6 T I B q B b ’ ‡ ` Ç ‘ S P A 6 P I A 6 P D B 6 |7 6 87 d d B D E¥eXes¥G£QEyGˆ”F%h§ˆe¥yeƒ¥%E£Xˆ&RX€¥£h f |7 ª I Y b § D S‘ BW h S  D B 9 i B D B q7W B i A P A i W A P S P B 6 P P A 6 P B B e&p7 ho‰e¦r&£X43ECaG¥EyG£fue£0§ue¥r£¥csƒ¥GH8 S P | I7 P 8 B D B P I7 87 P’ † ¥¥”G¥E¥!a€‚ÍyH §U¡§ˆwH §srwH XR§†GG£§uP ˜ – d i I A t ˜ ™ d t ˜ ­ ‘ S 8 B V I A f 87 i D S‘ BW h S D B 9 i B D B q7W B i A P A i W A P S P B 6 P 8 T S 6 8 d d B D h |7 ”F@§¦@X4 ECwU¥EX&GFgusd§ue¥@£¥©QUHcXg¥FXpª † ˜ d B D h |7 ª I7 9 AW D B q FGs¥£§&pa&€§&¥EysS 8 B q D h V d d† ™ ˜ – i I A t ˜ ® Y b § t Y b § † Ì AÊ ˜ d B D h |7 ª I7 B V I A P 87 Gy¥£ER§&!y§aƒejFX€hjwhohxX £Gf¥FXpvGeu”£i H X€¥¥RsA WwvH€¥sgse$§Rƒe£Gy¥FX|p‚&IRGGeu”8£i ˜ ­ B 6P SP D 7 78 BD A Ì VÊ i I A Ì …Ê ˜ d BD h 7 ª 7 8 B V I AP 7 H XG‚§A H esf§kSr¥gP£HG¥w§&S¥s&ARvpajXX&SwX|€¥s¥eA ˜ – d i I ˜ ™ d D ‘ 8 W h8 BD I 7P W h 7 ‡ † i A W 6 7 6 SP BP fHE£pwRcsR§py§€§‘h0§@e¥†§¥hHG†ug@…”F‡ D B i S v A P A d d† ™ ˜ – i I A Y b § ‘ S P A 6 P I A 6 P 8 8 BW 6 V h v 87 b ’ fQ©o§QF§§¥£¥g¥syG¥eXe¥@eƒ¥@QUHfH§Qy £Gw¥h ` Ç ‘ S P h 9 6 | h S D 6 P B P A | B D | | A B 6 P P A 6 P 8 T S 6 8 S 8W A Ì AÊ ˜ d B D f |7 ª †W A V7 P I B 7 87 8 B v B 6 V 8 B 6 P WW A ‘ S P h 9 6 | h S D 6 P B P A | B D | | e&p—e§U¥!GFi ggGwEuH†£¥§ˆ§r££X£X¥F¥€¥eXG¥§§§A B 6 P t Ì AÊ ˜ d B D h |7 ª I7 i B i A SW tW P 6 |7W 87 „ D S T P B I B 6 P I B 6 ¥0xX £Ua¥FXpUFXywg¥p§&y¥§©qEw£¥wG£¢„ † T ‰US EC©Xyew¥sugue£sFHe§Rv¥gQ£!§X§CX¥P D B 9 Ì i A SWÊ B P A D A P A i | I7 t D A q A 6 P7 T t t | SW S 9 S I7 A 6 V B 6 P I7 Ì §xr¥QaH XGƒ§dyH es0yH § sGG£§u”£g£p£%!GB ˜ – d i I A t ˜ ™ d t ˜ ­Ê 8 B V I A P 87 i B i S I P I f D B i7 i È D S‘ 8 PW h 8 B D I S7 P AW h v7 8 B 6 P T S 6 8 d d i I A ˜ d 8 B D h |7 HxjFQ§ko¥gHG¥w§&¥s&RHQ¥ÉUHcX€ƒegGcG¥FXpª ¨ § ¨ § f ` 5 ` n D S‘ D B T S 9 P7 v 8 I A D P B 6 P B V h i B D P S I I A Qp•ˆy§kE©UCgwHeuH—¥G££U¥ve£§UV hˆƒeA Y b § i I b’ ‡ ` Ç t PD A 9 A 8DBPB v ˜  ™ BD A 8B i S I P I B V A i A B 6P I B 6 ”F%UHsƒeR¥E¥xwyeX€¥esE£pR!GG§”©§†£¥G$„ † tW B q7 P V B 9 8 B D t Ì – !gGX&¥xGCHG¥xX¢ ® ™ dÊ – i I A Ì ­ U”€€§hy¢ ­ ™ dÊ ­ 8 s”€c7 ™ BW … A 5 I7 8 „ D S T P B I B V I A P 87 Repy&cp¥§©qEgGeu”£i H Xƒe†§§kr£XG€HEH8 ˜ « i I A ˜ – D S‘ B I S Æ | I7 8 I B D B7 D D A V B 6 P I7 8 B i S I ‘ S D B … v h I B 6 P t B D S‘ B D B 6 5 † tW B q7 P V B 9 E¥HeG€¥‚sG£p£‰§gECgp€£¥©X¥§kE¥E£©$!gGy¥EECH8 f B D t ® i I A ­ 87 8 „ D S T P B I B V I A P 87 i E¥d£vƒe€%p¥§4E£sG£§u”£›H §w§†Xr§k@vH §§‚Ê ˜ « i I A ˜ – D S‘ Ì ˜  ™ P A B | I A D I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B 6 P I7 8 B i S I ‘ S D B … v h I B 6 P t D B q e@X£§us§&HHwH£§uH©¥g&•GFpj§pECR£Fh£¥yUEyEB f T S } † 8 „ D S T P B I B V I A P 87 i hUˆ0Gp¥e©4xhG£§u”£—H §R§‰XR¥§Co§kcsh0aH §§‚Ê ˜ « i I A ˜ – 6 P S … D S‘ ™ d 87 Ì ˜   P A B | I A D | I7 8 I B 8 D B7 D D A V B 6 P I7 8 B i S I ‘ S D B … v h I B 6 egXeusHEH%E¥HeGr£¥acGFp•§QxCRp©5  ‚&QFy € ‚ € y &QFd † Ì B V I A P 87 xsG£§u”£i H §ss£¥Q§¦hFGGFEe¡”F%ˆejX§&!y§– ˜  d B 6 P D S‘ P 9 B V u BÊ b ’ ‡ ` Ç D S t d d† ™ ˜ I A 6 P D B P P B … 8 v D S‘ D B 9 WW7 P 8 P7 P h … t BW h S  D B 9 i B D B q7W B i A P A i 8 8 B §ƒ¥2E¥HEC0w¥§kHECp&¥”g0FXXX4!ECU¥EyGFˆue£•HGW 8 B q7 | P7 t Y b § S P i B D A 9 v S V t | D B I B B D S v 8 B v h 8 I S V ˜ ® Y b Gy§%g2who€¥aU¥ewXGe¥EGr¥§wcGwH£XG†y€ho§ B V I7 ‡ † 8 I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B D i I A 8 I S7 87WW S V v S ‘ I S7 P 9 v h 8 I S V t | D EFoG£XHHwH§uHx¥rƒe£XH&§G¨X¥D r§¥£wH£XGg§¥xB f£EQuHpE‰§w”Fˆ©R¥gQd££X£X¥F¥¥eXG¥§§§e!Cc¥Fi I B A D P u B i I A b ’ ‡ ` Ç 6 P7 T P h 9 6 | h S D 6 P B P A | B D | | A D S S 9 S P B h 87 87 6 5 † Ì …Ê « B D h |7 ª I7 8 B 8 A V t I A v D S‘ d d† ™ ˜ – I A 6 P B 8 D S T 8 c£©hxCeFr¥£XpvcGH§U€!§fc§kg§py§v§¥rH¥e©Q7 B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 P 6 P7 T BW h S D B 9 i B D B q7W B i A P A i W A P S P B 6 wGuH—Hp%©h£¥g¥gQ©§” ECrU¥EyG£cue£eu§¥£©5 † PD A 9 UHe§A H §§ˆ¥sE£pwEQ©w§¥Q£¥¼¥e¦SHEC•yy€hos§A ho§ ˜  ™ BD A 8B i S I IB 6 T B v A8 B 6P vD ‘DB 9 Ì ˜ ® Y b § i I Y b t b ’ ‡ ` Ç t d d† ™ ˜ –Ê 8 B v B 6 V 8 D h S‘ WW A t « B D h |7 ª I7 t B D S‘ B D B 6 c”F%%§XpXX yGwGuH†£Xkˆ§cFy¥FXpxˆX¥e¦E¥x©5 Ì y¥§§•7 † H ˜  ™ 8 P A B | I A D I S7 8 87 v 8 I A D P B 6 P P A 6 P WW A V B lÊ † r b eh§§urXHHwHeuHo¥2eƒ¥!§GGceFs@` 6 ˜ ”‹ 3ƒkUp& " Ì B V I A P 87 sG£§u”%n H §U”Ê ˜ – d BW h S D B 9 i B D B q7W B i A P A i W A P S 5 Ì V §” EC€U¥EyG£Rue2§ue2©seÊ 200 0 10 50 Data Rate Per Flow (Kbps) 100 150 200 250 300 Mbits delivered per Joule (Mbits/Joule) Mbits delivered per Joule (Mbits/Joule) bits delivered per Joule (Mbits/Joule) 6 p2ƒdGwFG£s2UGΨ 8R¨f20& C2Cs2UG£ƒpsƒƒv#Up0 pC$ gF€ 6 FGƒpsXpk˜” Ž Š ˜   œ œ Š ‹ – Ž • ‹ – œ  ¦  ¥   ‹ • “  •  Ž “ ‹ Š ‹ –  Š Ž   – Š “ ‹ Ž Š Š Œ  œ Š œ – Š Ž ’  œ¥ – œ Š Š “ ’ œ Ž •  ¥¥ – Ž  ‹ • “  •  Ž “ ‹ Š ‹ –  Š Ž   – œ Š œ – Š Ž ’ ˜” ™ – ¥  Ž  Œ ‹ Š ˜ Š “ ‹ œ  (  ¥   ‹ ˜” – “ ¨ G¦ƒ€£y" #§Uy2C‚ ¦ƒq 2p& C2Cs2G‚Eƒpsƒƒ£Q0 £Gpe§p¦Åƒkxeƒgup2m2U††y !ƒkƒ•& G¡¦2g$ s2ƒkQ  Š Ž • ” Ì B V I A P 87 sG£§u”%n H §U”Ê ˜ – d P h 9 6 | h SD 6P BP A | BD | | ` Ì V F§§¥£¥‰¥eXG¥§§c©seÊ 200 10 50 Data Rate Per Flow (Kbps) 100 150 200 250 300 Ì B V I A P 87 sG£§u”%n H es”Ê ˜ ™ d P h 9 6 | h SD 6P BP A |BD | | ` Ì … ££§X¥F¥‰¥eyE¥§X@©CeÊ 35 40 10 30 50 Data Rate Per Flow (Kbps) 75 100 125 150 Ì B V I A P 87 n H ˜ ­ sG£§u”%Ä5X Ê P h 9 6 | h SD 6P BP A | BD | | ` Ì A ££X£X¥£¥‰¥syG¥eXchX Ê 5 10 Data Rate Per Flow (Kbps) 15 20 25 30 q H 10 15 20 25 1.2 Aggregate Throughput (Mbps) Aggregate Throughput (Mbps) Aggregate Throughput (Mbps) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 5 0 1 5 802.11 BASIC PCM PCM40 802.11 BASIC PCM PCM40 10 Mbits delivered per Joule (30 flows, 60m) Aggregate Throughput (30 flows, 60m) Data Rate Per Flow (Kbps) 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 802.11 BASIC PCM PCM40 802.11 BASIC PCM PCM40 30 Mbits delivered per Joule (30 flows, 120m) Aggregate Throughput (30 flows, 120m) 50 Data Rate Per Flow (Kbps) 75 100 6.3.2 Chain topology: varying network load ‚ y 6Q€ V † 8 I S7 87WW S V 8 8 BW ‘ S B 8 h A V B … tW I7 A v Ì AÊ « B D h |7 G£XH&§G@HG0§‰H£§UGC€gefhX £r¥£§pª I7 8 P I7 S 9 H ˜  d i I A H ˜ ™ d B 6 P P A 8 9 v h B v B 6 V 8 b ’ ‡ ` Ç B 6 &o¥!&§CΡes€ƒeË¡es‰¥oeow4 wGuH‚”F%ˆ£¥P ‘ S P h 9 6 | h S D 6 P B P A | B D | | A B 6 5 † Ì AÊ « B D h |7 ª I7 8 B 8 A B D V I7 P h e%F§§¥£¥s¥eXG¥§§§w£©sxX £w¥FXpw&‰EH§U¥E£‰££9 f 6 | h S D 6 P B P A | B D | | A B 6 P t D BWW A v 8 8 B v S V B … 8 I S7 87WW S V W A7 P I B P S 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ECwU¥EyG£€ueo§ue¥s¥§kr¥g£HG¥w§&¥s&Rp‡ † I S7 P 9 v h 8 I S V t | D B I B ‘ S P7 I h D B 9 i B D B q7W B i A P A i D S S 9 I7 8 PW h #§¥£wH£XGg§¥xGd§•g£xCsU¥EyG£‰us©§!Cs¥g£H8 fBD B v B 6V8 b’ ‡ ` Ç B 6P ‘ S P h 9 6 | h SD 6P BP A |BD | | A D S S 9 B 6 E¥@wGuH…Hp%©ˆ¥pe©££§X¥F¥‰¥eyE¥§Xec§!C%£©5 † tW D S S !g¥e!C9 8 v D S‘ D B 9 b ’ ‡ ` Ç BW7 6 T t S7 D A I B V 8 t D B q B I7 d d† ™ ˜ – S P B 8 SW V t D B w¥e¦HECw”Fˆ©©Q§£¥eGGH‰HEXGgh§py§ˆ¥oHXG‰HEXq ™ ˜ pƒ– ¡ ¨ ¤ ¢Ã6 512 Œ  Ž Š & Š ‹ – Ž – ‹ – ™ œ £0¥ pGs~G#0& Packet Size (Bytes) 4 ) q r £ 6 – ” ™Š ¥ŽŠ$ ŠŽ– œŠ$Ž •’ Q% 4" k˜…F& & k–epC§ys£RFC©#y ¡ ¤ ¨ – ™ ˜ – œ Š 1” œ ‹ Š  ’ – ‹ ˜ Š Ž Š ¡” ™ “ ‹” Œ (  ¥   ƒpƒw£X)Upƒeƒp& dFsp¢2ÍUksÃ!ƒkƒ•& G‹ " #pƒsŽ ¢  s2ƒkQ  ™ ˜ –  Š Ž • ” P h 9 6 | h SD 6P BP A | BD | | ` Ì A F§§¥£¥‰¥eXG¥§§chy Ê 0 64 128 Packet Size (Bytes) 256 512 0 64 q BW h S D B 9 i B D B q7W B i A P A i W A P S 5 Ì … &£X4 xC†U¥EX&GFsue£peu§2©ƒeÊ 128 256 7. 6.3.5 Random topology: varying packet size CONCLUSIONS Aggregate Throughput (Mbps) 0.5 1.5 2.5 1 2 3 802.11 BASIC PCM PCM40 Aggregate Throughput (50 flows) Mbits delivered per Joule (Mbits/Joule) 10 12 2 4 6 8 802.11 BASIC PCM PCM40 Mbits delivered per Joule (50 flows) 2 ¥ ( U qBfp 4  && '& 2 C &&  u'& % 2 3 2  % c ¤ ‡ ‰B 4 ¤ ‡ 6 c c 2 EC R ¡ 2& Q§  d! && '& cr ˆ¤ " 2 3 c b ¦  ¨   c f  XX©F c b @7 ¨ c A9 i XX©F IH c … ` c ( ) 6 A!§ S   ‚ ‚ V  ¨   c A!  t©F  ¨   c A!  t©F £ ‘c ` ` 2 " e ¨ c  XX©F c & 2 C Eg c c ( ) 9 ¦ h § c F T e f ¨ y ¤ … B„ ‚ "…ƒ¦ 4 6 e 2 €y t ¨ F e c 8 2 3 c c …… && '& ¦ B ¥ g ¨4 R x † 7 ¦F A YXP a  6 d! 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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2011 for the course EEL 5937 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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