tinyos - System Architecture Directions for Networked...

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Unformatted text preview: System Architecture Directions for Networked Sensors * Jason Hill, Robert Szewczyk, Alec Woo, Seth Hollar, David Culler, Kristofer Pister Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA { jhill, szewczyk, awoo, culler } @cs.berkeley.edu, { shollar, pister } @eecs.berkeley.edu ABSTRACT Technological progress in integrated, low-power, CMOS com- munication devices and sensors makes a rich design space of networked sensors viable. They can be deeply embedded in the physical world and spread throughout our environ- ment like smart dust. The missing elements are an overall system architecture and a methodology for systematic ad- vance. To this end, we identify key requirements, develop a small device that is representative of the class, design a tiny event-driven operating system, and show that it provides support for efficient modularity and concurrency-intensive operation. Our operating system fits in 178 bytes of mem- ory, propagates events in the time it takes to copy 1.25 bytes of memory, context switches in the time it takes to copy 6 bytes of memory and supports two level scheduling. The analysis lays a groundwork for future architectural advances. 1. INTRODUCTION As the post-PC era emerges, several new niches of com- puter system design are taking shape with characteristics that are quite different from traditional desktop and server regimes. Many new regimes have been enabled, in part, by Moores Law pushing a given level of functionality into a smaller, cheaper, lower-power unit. In addition, three other trends are equally important: complete systems on a chip, integrated low-power communication, and integrated low-power transducers. All four of these trends are working together to enable the networked sensor. The basic micro- controller building block now includes not just memory and processing, but non-volatile memory and interface resources, such as DACs, ADCs, UARTs, interrupt controllers, and * This work is supported, in part, by the Defense Ad- vanced Research Projects Agency (grant DABT 63-98-C- 0038, Ninja, and contract DABT63-98-1-0018, Smart Dust) and the National Science Foundation (grant RI EIA- 9802069). Support is provided as well by Intel Corporation, Ericsson, Philips, Sun Microsystems, IBM, Nortel Networks, and Compaq. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee....
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tinyos - System Architecture Directions for Networked...

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