ZRP - IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS,...

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Unformatted text preview: IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 17, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 1395 Determining the Optimal Configuration for the Zone Routing Protocol Marc R. Pearlman, Student Member, IEEE , and Zygmunt J. Haas, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract The zone routing protocol (ZRP) is a hybrid routing protocol that proactively maintains routes within a local region of the network (which we refer to as the routing zone). Knowledge of this routing zone topology is leveraged by the ZRP to improve the efficiency of a reactive route query/reply mechanism. The ZRP can be configured for a particular network through adjustment of a single parameter, the routing zone radius. In this paper, we address the issue of configuring the ZRP to provide the best performance for a particular network at any time. Previous work has demonstrated that an optimally configured ZRP operates at least as efficiently as traditional reactive flood-search or proactive distance vector/link state routing protocols (and in many cases, much more efficiently). Adaptation of the ZRP to changing network conditions requires both an understanding of how the ZRP reacts to changes in network behavior and a mechanism to allow individual nodes to identify these changes given only limited knowledge of the network behavior. In the first half of this paper, we demonstrate the effects of relative node velocity, node density, network span, and user data activity on the performance of the ZRP. We then introduce two different schemes (min searching and traffic adaptive) that allow individual nodes to identify and appropriately react to changes in network configuration, based only on information derived from the amount of received ZRP traffic. Through test-bed simulation, we demonstrate that these radius estimation techniques can allow the ZRP to operate within 2% of the control traffic resulting from perfect radius estimation. Index Terms Ad hoc network, bordercast, hybrid routing, proactive routing, reactive routing, routing protocol, routing zone, zone routing protocol (ZRP). I. INTRODUCTION A. A Brief Overview of Ad Hoc Networks A D HOC NETWORKS are self-organizing wireless net- works composed of mobile nodes and requiring no fixed infrastructure. The limitations on power consumption imposed by portable wireless radios result in a node transmission range that is typically small relative to the span of the network. To provide communication throughout the entire network, each node is also designed to serve as a relay. The result is a distributed multihop network with a time-varying topology. Because ad hoc networks do not rely on existing infrastruc- ture and are self-organizing, they can be rapidly deployed to provide robust communication in a variety of hostile en- Manuscript received May 9, 1998; revised January 29, 1999. This work was supported in part by U.S. Air Force/Rome Labs under Contract C-7- 2544 and in part by a grant from Motorola Corporation, the Applied Research Laboratory.Laboratory....
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ZRP - IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS,...

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