Physiology Exam 3 Review

Physiology Exam 3 Review - 1 How do...

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1. How do epinephrine/norepinephrine impact blood pressure? (I want mechanisms) Both represent sympathetic stimulation of blood pressure and impact the heart, arterioles, and veins. In the heart, an increase in heart rate and stroke volume contribute to increased cardiac output. In the arterioles, an increase in vasoconstriction contributes to increased peripheral resistance. In the veins, an increase in vasoconstriction results in an increase in venous return, thus increased stroke volume and an increased cardiac output. 2. Bulk fluid flow occurs across the capillary wall resulting in exchange of nutrients, waste, cell products, and water between blood and the interstitial space. Define the forces that make this possible. Does this result in a net convective flow of the interstitial fluid? In which direction does this occur, if it occurs? Finally, what role does the lymphatics play in this process (one sentence at most) π determines how much water gets pulled to whatever side. The amount of water getting pulled is determined by how much plasma proteins are on the side it is being pulled to. 1. Capillary blood pressure (P c ) 2. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure ( π p ) 3. Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (P IF ) 4. Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure ( π IF ) net exchange pressure = (P c + π IF ) – ( π p + P IF ) outward inward Interstitial convective flow does occur and it will be down its pressure gradient thus generally from the arteriole to the venule side of the capillary. Lymphatics act as an additional drainage sink for the interstitial space helping to maintain interstitial fluid volume homeostasis. 3. Blood flowing through a vessel is subject to the same physical limitations as fluid flowing through a tube. Describe the physical properties effecting blood flow. Note that I am expecting in addition to an equation, the contributing roles of cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and smooth muscle cells. 4. Briefly, what are the various factors that facilitate venous return to the heart and how do they work? I talked about 7 factors; however, for grading we will accept any 4 with a brief descriptor of each. You will get 1 extra point for each additional factor listed for a maximum of 3 points extra for discussing all 7 factors. (hint: pg. 38 cardiovascular pdf, “factors that facilitate venous return”. 5. Describe, sketch, or outline how blood passes through the heart integrated with the pulmonary and systemic circuits. You’re not done yet. Now include the lymphatic circuit. Also, answer these questions:
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1. What is the primary difference between the blood and lymphatic circuits? Blood circuit is closed loop while lymphatic circuit is open 2. Which blood vessels does the lymphatic circuit enter? The vena cava 3. Are the arteries always the most oxygenated? No.
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