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Exam II-Endocrine, Immune, Cardiovascular system study

Exam II-Endocrine, Immune, Cardiovascular system study -...

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Exam 2-Endocrine, Immune and Cardiovascular system Endocrine System- a set of organs that release secretions into interstitial space and then reactions based on receptors RECEPTORS-# of receptors to # of hormones, and location determines reaction Hormones- the secretions that go into interstitial space circulatory system and then creates a reaction somewhere else in the body Protein based hormones-easily degraded by epinephrine, made by genes expression, attached to effectors system Glucose goes up in the body, insulin comes and takes the glucose to cell surface. It triggers a glu-t to come which transports the glucose in . Insulin (protein-based) cannot pass through cell surface. Need cell-surface insulin receptors. Then they call the glut to come. Lipid based hormones-regulates gene expression. Hormone attaches to a chaperone and is brought into the cell and b/c it can go through both plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. It is not as easily degraded **half life? Responses- 1. Neural response-In response to neural stimulus. Example? 2. Humoral response-Responds to nutrient concentration in body. i.e Glucagon if there is too little glucose. Insulin if there is too much glucose 3. Hormonal response- one hormone triggers the release of another hormone. CRH ACTH cortisol. PITUITARY GLAND -under direct and indirect control of hypothalamus POSTERIOR PITUITARY -extension of the brain -neurohypophyses is the infundibulum and the posterior lobe - pituicytes -Neuropopulation, axons extend down into the posterior pituitary, SON-supra optic nucleus, and PVN- paraventricular nucleus. SON-mostly releases OXYTOCIN PVN-mostly releases ADH (protein based hormones) ANTERIOR PITUITARY -first neuropopulation found in the hypothalamus, axons extend down only to the infundibulum, They release Releasing or Inhibiting hormones. The releasing or inhibiting hormones get picked up by the primary plexus then sent down the portal vein to the secondary neuropopulation where the tropic hormones are present. -Direct response hormones – growth hormone and prolactin -Tropic hormones- hormones that cause the release of another hormone after they have been stimulated by a hormone. Thyroid stimulating hormone Adrenal corticotropic hormone Follicle stimulating hormone Luteinizing hormone
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OXYTOCIN -released by supraoptic nucleus in the posterior pituitary 2 jobs 1. Let-down reflex - is it’s primary function. Glands converge to 1 single tube that exits through the nipple Breast has globules -where glands are located. Mammary tissue surrounds the globules, has the oxytocin receptors . Myoepithelial layer under the mammary tissues, contracts and squeezes and allows milk to leave through the one gland. Crying can trigger the let-down reflex 2. Stage 2-labor Uterus has already been effaced and oxytocin causes myometrium to contract to push baby out. Expulsion of baby through the uterin canal (Stage 1 labor needs to occur before this can. Stage 1 labor is just when the baby’s head
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