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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Page 1 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM SCIENTOLOGY Making the World a Better Place Founded and developed by L. Ron Hubbard, Scientology is an applied religious philosophy which offers an exact route through which anyone can regain the truth and simplicity of his spiritual self. Scientology consists of specific axioms that define the underlying causes and principles of existence and a vast area of observations in the humanities, a philosophic body that literally applies to the entirety of life. This broad body of knowledge resulted in two applications of the subject: first, a technology for man to increase his spiritual awareness and attain the freedom sought by many great philosophic teachings; and, second, a great number of fundamental principles men can use to improve their lives. In fact, in this second application, Scientology offers nothing less than practical methods to better every aspect of our existence—means to create new ways of life. And from this comes the subject matter you are about to read. Compiled from the writings of L. Ron Hubbard, the data presented here is but one of the tools which can be found in The Scientology Handbook. A comprehensive guide, the handbook contains numerous applications of Scientology which can be used to improve many other areas of life. In this booklet, the editors have augmented the data with a short introduction, practical exercises and examples of successful application. Courses to increase your understanding and further materials to broaden your knowledge are available at your nearest Scientology church or mission. Li s t ings are available at Many new phenomena about man and life are described in Scientology, and so you may encounter terms in these pages you are not familiar with. These are described the first time they appear and in the glossary at the back of the booklet. Scientology is for use. It is a practical philosophy, something one does. Using this data, you can change conditions. Millions of people who want to do something about the conditions they see around them have applied this knowledge. They know that life can be improved. And they know that Scientology works. Use what you read in these pages to help yourself and others and you will too. CHURCH OF SCIENTOLOGY INTERNATIONAL Chapter Page 2 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM I t seems that people often have trouble getting along together. Families argue, neighbors come to blows, countries lob weapons at each other. Is this the way it has to be? Anthropologists, sociologists, psychologists and others say it is. Having observed a long history of man’s quarrelsome behavior, they claim that man has animal instincts, or that he is antisocial and violent by his very nature. In truth, man is rather peaceful. But he can be driven, individually and collectively, to hatred and violence. In researching the causes of violence, L. Ron Hubbard unearthed a fundamental and natural law of human relations which explains why conflicts between people are so often difficult to remedy. And he provided an immensely valuable tool that enables one to resolve any conflict, be it between neighbors, co-workers or even countries. In this booklet, you will discover how to help others resolve their differences and restore peaceable relations. Peace and harmony between men can be more than just a dream. Widespread application of this law will make it a reality.■ 2 Chapter Page 3 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM THE THIRD PARTY LAW iolence and conflict amongst individuals and nations have been with us for ages and their causes have remained a complete mystery, a mystery finally solved in Scientology. If Chaldea could vanish, if Babylon turn to dust, if Egypt could become a badlands, if Sicily could have 160 prosperous cities and be a looted ruin before the year zero and a near desert ever since—and all this in spite of all the work and wisdom and good wishes and intent of human beings, then it must follow as the dark follows sunset that something must be unknown to man concerning all his works and ways. And that this something must be so deadly and so pervasive as to destroy all his ambitions and his chances long before their time. Such a thing would have to be some natural law unguessed at by himself. And there is such a law, apparently, that answers these conditions of being deadly, unknown and embracing all activities. The law would seem to be: A THIRD PARTY MUST BE PRESENT AND UNKNOWN IN EVERY QUARREL FOR A CONFLICT TO EXIST. or FOR A QUARREL TO OCCUR, AN UNKNOWN THIRD PARTY MUST BE ACTIVE IN PRODUCING IT BETWEEN TWO POTENTIAL OPPONENTS. or WHILE IT IS COMMONLY BELIEVED TO TAKE TWO TO MAKE A FIGHT, A THIRD PARTY MUST EXIST AND MUST DEVELOP IT FOR ACTUAL CONFLICT TO OCCUR. It is very easy to see that two in conflict are fighting. They are very visible. What is harder to see or suspect is that a third party existed and actively promoted the quarrel. The usually unsuspected and “reasonable” third party, the bystander who denies any part of it, is the one that brought the conflict into existence in the first place. 3 Chapter Page 4 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM The hidden third party, seeming at times to be a supporter of only one side, is to be found as the instigator. This is a useful law in many areas of life. It is the cause of war. One sees two fellows shouting bad names at each other, sees them come to blows. No one else is around. So they, of course, “caused the fight.” But there was a third party. Tracing these down, one comes upon incredible data. That is the trouble. The incredible is too easily rejected. One way to hide things is to make them incredible. Clerk A and Messenger B have been arguing. They blaze into direct conflict. Each blames the other. Neither one is correct and so the quarrel does not resolve since its true cause is not established. One looks into such a case thoroughly. He finds the incredible. The wife of Clerk A has been sleeping with Messenger B and complaining alike to both about the other. Farmer J and Rancher K have been tearing each other to pieces for years in continual conflict. There are obvious, logical reasons for the fight. Yet it continues and does not resolve. A close search finds Banker L who, due to their losses in the fighting, is able to loan each side money, while keeping the quarrel going, and who will get their lands completely if both lose. It goes larger. The revolutionary forces and the Russian government were in conflict in 1917. The reasons are so many the attention easily sticks on them. But only when Germany’s official state papers were captured in World War II was it revealed that Germany had promoted the revolt and financed Lenin to spark it off, even sending him into Russia in a blacked-out train! One looks over “personal” quarrels, group conflicts, national battles and one finds, if he searches, the third party, unsuspected by both combatants or, if suspected at all, brushed off as “fantastic.” Yet careful documentation finally affirms it. This datum is fabulously useful. In marital quarrels the correct approach of anyone counseling is to get both parties to carefully search out the third party. They may come to many reasons at first. These reasons are not beings (people). One is looking for a third party, an actual being. When both find the third party and establish proof, that will be the end of the quarrel. 4 Chapter Page 5 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM Sometimes two parties, quarreling, suddenly decide to elect a being to blame. This stops the quarrel. Sometimes it is not the right being and more quarrels thereafter occur. Two nations at each other’s throats should each seek conference with the other to sift out and locate the actual third party. They will always find one if they look, and they can find the right one. As it will be found to exist in fact. There are probably many technical approaches one could develop and outline in this matter. There are many odd phenomena connected with it. An accurately spotted third party is usually not fought at all by either party but only shunned. Marital conflicts are common. Marriages can be saved by both parties really sorting out who caused the conflicts. There may have been, in the whole history of the marriage, several but only one at a time. Quarrels between an individual and an organization are nearly always caused by an individual third party or a third group. The organization and the individual should get together and isolate the third party by displaying to each other all the data they each have been fed. Rioters and governments alike could be brought back to agreement could one get representatives of both to give each other what they have been told by whom. Such conferences have tended to deal only in recriminations or conditions or abuses. They must deal in beings only in order to succeed. This theory might be thought to assert also that there are no bad conditions that cause conflict. There are. But these are usually remedial by conference unless a third party is promoting conflict. In history we have a very foul opinion of the past because it is related by recriminations of two opponents and has not spotted the third party. “Underlying causes” of war should read “hidden promoters.” There are no conflicts which cannot be resolved unless the true promoters of them remain hidden. This is the natural law the ancients and moderns alike did not know. And not knowing it, being led off into “reasons,” whole civilizations have died. It is worth knowing. It is worth working with in any situation where one is trying to bring peace. 5 Chapter Page 6 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM HE’S BAD! A third party can create conflict by complaining to her daughter about her son-in-law’s income… …and then upsetting the son-in-law by misinterpreting something his wife said. When the conflict erupts, the third party is often unnoticed and unsuspected. 6 COMMU Chapter Page 7 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM SHE’S BAD! But if the couple knows the Third Party Law, they can recognize such disputes for what they are and locate the true cause of the fight. NICATION With the mother-in-law’s influence handled, any differences can easily be resolved, and harmony restored. 7 Chapter Page 8 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM Further Discovery Another very important factor in third party technology is false reports. False reports are written or spoken statements which turn out to be groundless or deceitful or which knowingly contain lies. We know that a third party is necessary to any quarrel. In reviewing several organizational upsets, it was found that the third party can go completely overlooked even in intensive investigation. By giving false reports on others, a third party causes harm and wreaks havoc amongst individuals and groups. In several cases an organization has lost several guiltless staff members. They were dismissed or disciplined in an effort to solve upsets. Yet the turbulence continued and the area became even more upset by reason of the dismissals. Running this back further, one finds that the real third party, eventually unearthed, got people shot by false reports. One source of this is as follows: Staff member X goofs. He is very furious and defensive at being accused. He blames his goof on somebody else. That somebody else gets disciplined. Staff member X diverts attention from himself by various means including falsely accusing others. This is a third party action which results in a lot of people being blamed and disciplined. And the real third party remaining undetected. The missing point of justice here is that the disciplined persons were not faced with their accusers and were not given the real accusation and so could not confront it. Another case would be a third party simply spreading tales and making accusations out of malice or some even more vicious motive. This would be a usual third party action. It is ordinarily based on false reports. Another situation comes about when a person in charge of some area who can’t get the area straight starts to investigate, gets third party false reports about it, disciplines people accordingly and totally misses the real third party. This upsets the area even more. The basis of all really troublesome third party activities is then false reports. 8 Chapter Page 9 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM There can also be false perception. One sees things that don’t exist and reports them as “fact.” Therefore we see that we can readily run back an investigation by following a chain of false reports. In at least one case the third party (discovered only after it was very plain that only he could have wrecked two areas of the organization, one after the other) also had these characteristics: 1. Goofed in his own actions 2. Furiously contested any reports filed on him 3. Obsessively changed everything when taking over an area 4. Falsely reported actions, accusing others 5. Had a high casualty rate of staff in his area These are not necessarily common to all third parties but give you an idea of what can go on. From experience in dealing with ethics and justice matters in groups it is apparent that the real source of upset in an area would be false reports accepted and acted upon without confronting the accused with all charges and his or her accusers. A person with any degree of authority in a group should not accept any accusation and act upon it. To do so undermines the security of one and all. One could, as a start, refuse to act on any information unless it were proven by personal investigation not to be the action of some third party. On being presented with an accusation or “evidence” a person in charge of some activity should conduct an investigation of false reports and false perceptions. In this way one can then verify such reports and arrive at the true source of the trouble and avoid disciplining individuals who may be innocent. Justice, then, would consist of a refusal to accept any report not substantiated by actual, independent data, seeing that all such reports are investigated and that all investigations include confronting the accused with the accusation and where feasible the accuser, before any disciplinary action is undertaken or any penalty assigned. While this may slow the processes of justice, the personal security of the individual is totally dependent upon establishing the full truth of any accusation before any action is taken. 9 Chapter Page 10 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM How to Find a Third Party The way not to find a third party is to compile a questionnaire that asks one and all in various ways, “Have you been a victim?” Do not ask questions such as, “Who has been mean to you?” or other questions which would tend to elicit answers that the person has been victimized. This kind of question will not locate the individual stirring up conflicts between people but may only name executives and others in the group who are trying to get people to do their jobs and be productive! Anyone who uses this approach (1) does not find any third party and (2) causes people to mentally or physically collapse to the extent that they cannot function causatively. By definition, a third party is one who by false reports creates trouble between two people, a person and a group or a group and another group. The object of the investigation, then, is to find out who has been spreading false reports in order to stir up conflicts between people or groups. To find a third party one has to ask those involved in the dispute questions along the following lines: 1a. Have you been told you were in bad? b. What was said? c. Who said it? 2a. Have you been told someone was bad? b. What was said? c. Who said it? 3a. Have you been told someone was doing wrong? b. What was said? c. Who said it? 4a. Have you been told a group was bad? b. What was said? c. Who said it? A questionnaire like this should have a limiter such as “On your job _____?” or “In your marriage _____?” or “In this family _____?” 10 Chapter Page 11 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM To find a third party, ask who has been telling people that others were bad, doing wrong, etc. An entire group can be asked such questions, and when the results are viewed… …one person’s name will appear far more often than others. This is the person to investigate for creating disharmony and conflicts. 11 Chapter Page 12 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM It may also have a lot of answers so leave ample space for each question. By then combining names given, you have one name appearing far more often than the rest. This is done by counting names. You then investigate this person. By following this procedure, you will find out exactly who has been stirring up conflicts and thus open the door to their resolution. With this tool in your hands you will be able to change conditions between family members, associates and groups you come into contact with and restore harmony. Such a remedy for previously unresolvable conflicts never existed before Scientology. It is the solution to a host of ills that have worried men for ages.■ 12 Chapter Page 13 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM PRACTICAL EXERCISES Here are exercises you can do to increase your ability to resolve conflicts, whether handling one you may be involved in or helping others resolve conflicts they have. 1 To gain experience in recognizing false reports or false perceptions, find an example of a false report in your environment, such as something a neighbor said, something said at your job, etc. 2 Repeat the above practical assignment several more times until you can confidently recognize false reports. 3 Find two people who are involved in some kind of unresolving quarrel or conflict and resolve it using the Third Party Law. 4 Now find two other people or groups who are involved in a quarrel or conflict and resolve it using the data in this booklet. Repeat this until you are able to resolve conflicts using the Third Party Law. 13 Chapter Page 14 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM RESULTS FROM APPLICATION Using the Third Party Law, people have been able to resolve their differences, upsets have ceased and peaceable relations have been restored. This is an indispensable tool to handle conflicts that will not otherwise resolve, whether these involve familial situations, interpersonal relationships in the workaday world, or stress between groups or even nations. W hen, for example, the Director General of Justice from an independent state in South Africa first took over his government position, he found numerous conflicts had to be resolved before any progress could be made to improve his society. He read Mr. Hubbard’s discovery about the Third Party Law and realized he had found the tool he needed to handle these conflicts. When making a special presentation to acknowledge Mr. Hubbard RAPID RESOLUTION OF CONFLICTS DURATION OF CONFLICT: 6 Months Consulting Company Time to Resolve the Conflict: 3 Days 18 Months Two Musicians Time to Resolve the Conflict: 1 Day Two Working Partners 2 Years Time to Resolve the Conflict: 2 Weeks 6 Months 12 Months 18 Months 14 Application of the Third Party Law rapidly resolves long-standing quarrels as can be seen in these examples. 24 Months 30 Months on behalf of the law enforcement officials in his country, the Director General said: “I use L. Ron Hubbard’s Third Party Law almost every day. It is like magic in resolving conflicts and is one of the most effective tools I have ever found to bring about peace and harmony among different groups. L. Ron Hubbard is truly a great man and I say this for a special reason. It is because he has given us wisdom, and not kept it to himself.” W hile paying a brief visit to a couple in Sydney, Australia, a man noticed the wife was somewhat quarrelsome with her husband. He showed her Mr. Hubbard’s Third Party Law and told her to apply it to the situation. She was halfhearted about this as it didn’t seem to be much of a troublesome situation to her. However, she did what their visitor suggested and later wrote to him saying: “That night I sat down with my husband and brought the matter up. To our complete amazement, we found that each of us had been separately told, by the same person, that the other was bad. And each of us considered that person our special friend—in fact, we had separately often gone to her for advice! The more we discussed this, the more realizations we had and our affinity for each other soared and soared. Prior to this, neither of us had thought it was particularly low, but now it seems it has no bounds. Thank you for telling me to do this, I gained complete Chapter Page 15 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM certainty on the workability of this technology on the Third Party Law.” Miraculous results were obtained when a man from Burbank, California, used the Third Party Law to resolve a conflict between two business partners which would just not clear up. “I conducted a hearing on the parties concerned and in the course of this, I determined that a third party investigation was needed, as the communication between the people involved simply would not improve. “The results were truly miraculous. Not only did the communication go back in with a bang, but I watched one of the parties, who had been ill for three years, change before my eyes. She realized that it had been due to this situation and the third partying involved that she had become ill. You would be amazed at how good it feels to be able to give help to others that is real help.” S ome international business partners had been locked in a long-term conflict that showed no signs of resolving. They were advised to get a third party investigation done into the matter. This was done and the results were fantastic. One of the businessmen concerned reported: “After two days of third party investigation, a conflict which had lasted ten months finally came to an end and we are now friends with our business partners again. This was the most incredible phenomenon we have seen! After the investigation was complete, we were able to reach agreement on issues where none had been possible before. This technology worked like magic. Scientology is the game where everyone wins!” A n executive in a large organization learned of a conflict between two coworkers that had raged for weeks. In spite of seemingly successful attempts at reconciling the two, the fight would soon break out afresh. Recognizing this pattern, the executive applied the Third Party Technology she had learned; she was able to resolve the conflict within minutes. “I had a tremendous win applying Mr. Hubbard’s data on handling conflicts. I noticed two personnel working near me were constantly in conflict with each other. I attempted a couple of times to help them “resolve their differences,” but then I remembered the data I had learned on handling such situations. I applied this data and it was incredible. In minutes I had the whole situation handled and these two people were again talking to each other. It was miraculous—it hadn’t changed for weeks prior to this and it was solved in just minutes using this data.” A young couple were able to restore harmony in their marriage on discovering 15 Chapter Page 16 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM a hidden third party who had been causing trouble: “Several years ago my wife and I were having trouble. We had just moved into a new house which we shared with some other people. Suddenly my wife began finding fault with nearly everything I did. I didn’t understand it until one night it occurred to me that maybe there was a third party involved, as I had read about in a book by L. Ron Hubbard. I asked her what she was being told about me. It didn’t take much questioning to find the third party—and the trouble disappeared completely.” Escalating conflict between two southern California children was defused and completely handled, before it became a serious situation, at a school that uses Mr. Hubbard’s technology: “Just after Christmas last year, my twelve-year-old daughter and another child about the same age were in constant conflict. My daughter even wanted to learn karate so she could beat the other youngster up! She had an accident on Christmas day, leaving her with her thumb in a cast; she said she had been thinking of this boy when it happened. This was just too much, so I brought the whole matter to the attention of the head of the school my daughter attends. He had the children interviewed and a third party investigation done. The third party was found and the conflict disappeared; the children started getting along great. And she continues to do well.” 16 A quarrelsome marriage was saved through the application of the Third Party Law by a family member trained in this technology. “My brother-in-law and his wife were quarreling nonstop and headed for divorce. I used the Third Party Law and sure enough, there was a person who had told lies to each person about the other—a man who about a year earlier had tried (unsuccessfully) to begin an affair with the wife. It was this person’s lying that had caused all the strife! “With this revealed, my brother-in-law and his wife rediscovered their love for each other; they found themselves back in communication for the first time in quite a while and the fighting stopped. Another miracle of Scientology.” Two Australian sisters, close companions for many years, began to fight. Communication broke down utterly until L. Ron Hubbard’s Third Party Technology was applied. “My sister and I are very, very close and have been since we were quite young. However there came a time when we started getting ‘on each other’s nerves’ a bit; this escalated to the point where we began fighting with a vengeance about petty, ridiculous things. “Finally we couldn’t and wouldn’t even talk to one another. We’d be together and anyone could instantly perceive the bad feelings between us. Neither of us were happy about this and we finally tried to talk it out and handle the upsets. But within Chapter Page 17 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM minutes we were back at each other’s throats. It was just horrible; we had just never fought like this at all and were known by our friends as being inseparable. “It was at this point that I recalled the data that Mr. Hubbard had written about third parties. Maybe this had something to do with our persistent fighting. I grabbed my sister, took her off to a room where we could be by ourselves and asked her if anyone had been ‘in her ear’ about me. “This created such a reaction it was unbelievable. We both realized that a person we’d recently gotten to know was telling each of us bad (and untrue) things about the other! “Without this technology we would never have discovered what was going on. We went over all the things he had been saying and found out that while he was flattering one of us he was chopping the other up; then he’d go to the other and do the same thing in reverse. “My sister and I instantly and immediately went into great communication, with very high affinity restored. It was so incredible—all the bad feelings that had built up between us had disappeared. “Knowing and using this technology, we have maintained the best communication line one could imagine. Which is very important as my sister is very, very dear to me. If it hadn’t been for this principle our friendship would have been destroyed and lost forever.” 17 Chapter Page 18 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM ABOUT L. RON HUBBARD N o more fitting statement typifies the life of L. Ron Hubbard than his simple declaration: “I like to help others and count it as my greatest pleasure in life to see a person free himself from the shadows which darken his days.” Behind these pivotal words stands a lifetime of service to mankind and a legacy of wisdom that enables anyone to attain long-cherished dreams of happiness and spiritual freedom. Born in Tilden, Nebraska on March 13, 1911, his road of discovery and dedication to his fellows began at an early age. “I wanted other people to be happy, and could not understand why they weren’t,” he wrote of his youth; and therein lay the sentiments that would long guide his steps. By the age of nineteen, he had traveled more than a quarter of a million miles, examining the cultures of Java, Japan, India and the Philippines. Returning to the United States in 1929, Ron resumed his formal education and studied mathematics, engineering and the then new field of nuclear physics—all providing vital tools for continued research. To finance that research, Ron embarked upon a literary career in the early 1930s, and soon became one of the most widely read authors of popular fiction. Yet never losing sight of his primary goal, he continued his mainline research through extensive travel and expeditions. With the advent of World War II, he entered the United States Navy as a lieutenant (junior grade) and served as commander of antisubmarine corvettes. Left partially blind and lame from injuries sustained during combat, he was diagnosed as permanently disabled by 1945. Through application of his theories on the mind, however, he was not only able to help fellow servicemen, but also to regain his own health. After five more years of intensive research, Ron’s discoveries were presented to the world in Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. The first popular handbook on the human mind expressly written for the man in the street, Dianetics ushered in a new era of hope for mankind and a new 18 Chapter Page 19 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM phase of life for its author. He did, however, not cease his research, and as breakthrough after breakthrough was carefully codified through late 1951, the applied religious philosophy of Scientology was born. Because Scientology explains the whole of life, there is no aspect of man’s existence that L. Ron Hubbard’s subsequent work did not address. Residing variously in the United States and England, his continued research brought forth solutions to such social ills as declining educational standards and pandemic drug abuse. All told, L. Ron Hubbard’s works on Scientology and Dianetics total forty million words of recorded lectures, books and writings. Together, these constitute the legacy of a lifetime that ended on January 24, 1986. Yet the passing of L. Ron Hubbard in no way constituted an end; for with a hundred million of his books in circulation and millions of people daily applying his technologies for betterment, it can truly be said the world still has no greater friend.■ 19 Chapter Page 20 Tuesday, September 25, 2001 8:08 PM GLOSSARY affinity: love, liking or any other emotional attitude; the degree of liking. The basic definition of affinity is the consideration of distance, whether good or bad. communication: an interchange of ideas across space between two individuals. ethics: the actions an individual takes on himself to correct some conduct or situation in which he is involved which is contrary to the ideals and best interests of his group. It is a personal thing. When one is ethical or “has his ethics in,” it is by his own determinism and is done by himself. justice: the action taken on an individual by the group when he fails to take appropriate ethics actions himself. 20 Scientology: an applied religious philosophy developed by L. Ron Hubbard. It is the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself, universes and other life. The word Scientology comes from the Latin scio, which means “know” and the Greek word logos, meaning “the word or outward form by which the inward thought is expressed and made known.” Thus, Scientology means knowing about knowing. third party: one who by false reports creates trouble between two people, a person and a group, or a group and another group. Third Party Law: a law which states that a third party must be present and unknown in every quarrel for a conflict to exist. Chap Page 29 Saturday, September 15, 2001 11:46 PM Bridge Publications, Inc. 4751 Fountain Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90029 ISBN 0-88404-915-9 ©1994, 2001 L. Ron Hubbard Library. All Rights Reserved. Any unauthorized copying, translation, duplication, importation or distribution, in whole or in part, by any means, including electronic copying, storage or transmission, is a violation of applicable laws. Scientology, Dianetics, Celebrity Centre, L. Ron Hubbard, Flag, Freewinds, the L. Ron Hubbard Signature, the Scientology Cross (rounded) and the Scientology Cross (pointed) are trademarks and service marks owned by Religious Technology Center and are used with its permission. NEW ERA is a trademark and service mark. Bridge Publications, Inc. is a registered trademark and service mark in California and it is owned by Bridge Publications, Inc. Printed in the United States of America ® An L. RON HUBBARD Publication 21 ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/26/2011 for the course ECE 102 taught by Professor Phillipwong during the Spring '10 term at Portland State.

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