agents01-emotion - Tears and Fears: Modeling emotions and...

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Tears and Fears: Modeling emotions and emotional behaviors in synthetic agents Jonathan Gratch University of Southern California Institute for Creative Technologies 13274 Fiji Way Marina del Rey, CA 90292 gratch@ict.usc.edu Stacy Marsella University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty, Marina del Rey, CA 90292 marsella@isi.edu ABSTRACT Emotions play a critical role in creating engaging and believable characters to populate virtual worlds. Our goal is to create general computational models to support characters that act in virtual environments, make decisions, but whose behavior also suggests an underlying emotional current. In service of this goal, we inte- grate two complementary approaches to emotional modeling into a single unified system. Gratch’s Émile system focuses on the prob- lem of emotional appraisal: how emotions arise from an evalua- tion of how environmental events relate to an agent’s plans and goals. Marsella et al.’s IPD system focuses more on the impact of emotions on behavior, including the impact on the physical ex- pressions of emotional state through suitable choice of gestures and body language. This integrated model is layered atop Steve, a pedagogical agent architecture, and exercised within the context of the Mission Rehearsal Exercise, a prototype system designed to teach decision-making skills in highly evocative situations. 1 INTRODUCTION A person’s emotional state interacts with numerous aspects of mental and physical behavior. Decision-making, actions, memory, attention, voluntary muscles, etc. may all be impacted, which in turn may impact emotional state (e.g., See Berkowitz, 2000). This pervasive impact is reflected in the fact that a person will exhibit a wide repertoire of nonverbal behaviors consistent with emo- tional state, behaviors that can serve a variety of functions both for the person exhibiting them as well as for people observing them. For example, shaking a fist at someone plays an intended role in communicating information to another person. On the other hand, behaviors such as rubbing one's thigh, averting gaze or a facial expression of fear may have no explicitly intended role in communication. Nevertheless, they may suggest considerable information about them, their emotional arousal, their attitudes and what they are attending to. This paper will attempt to show how some of this daunting sub- tlety in human behavior can be modeled by intelligent agents, from the perception of events in the world, to the appraisal of their emotional significance, through to their outward impact on an agent’s behavior. The focus for our work is on general software agents that model human performance in rich simulated worlds. In particular, we focus on virtual training environments where intel- ligent agents interact with a human participant to facilitate the training objectives. Emotions play an important role in such envi- ronments by enhancing believability and realism, increasing ones
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2011 for the course EGN 3060c taught by Professor Sukthankar,g during the Fall '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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agents01-emotion - Tears and Fears: Modeling emotions and...

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