Chertoff_final - An Exploration of Menu Techniques using a...

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An Exploration of Menu Techniques using a 3D Game Input Device Dustin B. Chertoff Ross W. Byers Joseph J. LaViola Jr. University of Central Florida, {rbyers, jjl} Abstract Existing work on menu techniques has shown linear menus to be less efficient and reliable for menuing tasks when compared to radial menus. With the rise in popularity of 3D spatial interaction in console gaming, such as the Nintendo Wii, it is important to determine whether the existing findings still hold true when using a 3D pointing device such as the Wii Controller. Linear menus were compared with two other menu techniques: radial menus and rotary menus. Effectiveness was measured through task completion time and the number of task errors. A subjective measure was also taken to determine participant preferences. Participants performed faster and made fewer errors when using the radial menu technique. Radial menus were also preferred by participants. These results indicate that radial menus are an effective menu technique when used with a 3D pointing device. This appears to agree with previous work regarding radial menus and indicates that the usage of radial menus in gaming applications should be investigated further. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.6.3 [ Simulation, Modeling, and Visualization ]: Applications H.5.2 [ Information Interfaces and Representation ]: User Interfaces - Graphical user interfaces (GUI), Input devices and strategies, Interaction styles General Terms Performance, Design, Experimentation, Human Factors Keywords 3D Interaction, input devices, usability, user studies, video games 1. INTRODUCTION In games, time is typically a factor working against the player. The slower the player, the more time opponents have to act contrary to the player‘s goals. However, games can contain a large number of objectives demanding the player‘s attention . Therefore, it is important for the player to stay focused on the game activity, and not to be distracted due to the menu technique. Some techniques, such as pausing time while the player interacts with the menu system can alleviate some of the time pressure. However, it also can break the player‘s immersion in the game. In addition to impacting player performance, menu techniques can have a profound impact on the enjoyment of a game. A player that spends more time interacting with an interface than playing the game itself is likely to stop playing. Traditionally, in-game tasks are performed with a linear menu. Linear menus have been used for initial start screens, selecting items from a player character‘s inventory, and even character ability usage. The large number of items that can be placed into a linear menu has lead to various measures being used to improve menuing efficiency. These methods include icons to improve user recognition and keyboard or button shortcuts to facilitate faster item selection. However, these approaches still have limitations. According to [26] and [34], while icons are easier to recognize
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2011 for the course CAP 6121 taught by Professor Lavoilajr. during the Spring '11 term at University of Central Florida.

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Chertoff_final - An Exploration of Menu Techniques using a...

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