input_devices - 3D User Interface Hardware Lecture #7:...

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Unformatted text preview: 3D User Interface Hardware Lecture #7: Input Devices Spring 2011 Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Interaction Interaction Workflow Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 1 Lecture Outline Input device characteristics device characteristics Desktop devices Tracking devices position eye gloves 3D mice Direct human input Building special input devices Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Input Devices Hardware that allows the user to communicate the user to communicate with with the system Input device vs. interaction technique Single device can Single device can implement implement many ITs Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 2 Input Device Characteristics Degrees of Freedom (DOFs) DOF Degrees of Freedom (DOFs) & DOF composition composition (integral vs. separable) Type of electronics: Digital vs. analog Range of reported values: discrete/continuous/hybrid discrete/continuous/hybrid Data type of reported values: Boolean vs. integer vs. floating point Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. More Input Device Characteristics User action required: active/passive/hybrid action required: active/passive/hybrid Method of providing information: “push” vs. “pull” Intended use: locator, valuator, choice, … Frame of reference: relative vs. absolute of reference: relative vs absolute Properties sensed: position, motion, force, … Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3 Desktop Devices: Keyboards Chord keyboards Arm-mounted rmkeyboards “Soft” keyboards (logical devices) Spring 2011 www.virtual-laser-keyboard.com CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Desktop Devices: Mice and TrackBalls Many varieties varieties 2D input to 3DUI Relative devices Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 4 Desktop Devices: Pen-based PenTablets Absolute 2D device 2D device Either direct or indirect Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Desktop Devices: Joysticks Isotonic vs. Isometric vs Isometric Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 5 Desktop Devices: 6-DOF Devices 66 DOFs without trackin tracking Often isometric SpaceBall, SpaceMouse, SpaceOrb Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Tracking Devices: Position Trackers Measure position and/or orientation of a sensor Degrees of freedom (DOFs) Most VEs track the head motion parallax natural viewing Types of trackers Spring 2011 magnetic mechanical acoustic inertial vision/camera hybrids CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 6 Other Uses For Trackers Track hands, feet, etc. “whole body” interaction motion capture application Correspondence between physical/virtual objects Spring 2011 props spatial input devices CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Tracking Physical Objects (Props) Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 7 Magnetic Trackers Example: Ascension Bird Advantages good range no line of sight issues moderately priced Disadvantages Spring 2011 metal or conductive co material will distort the magnetic field magnetic field can interfere with nearby monitors CAP6121 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Mechanical Trackers Example: Fakespace BOOM tracker Fakespace BOOM tracker Advantages low latency very accurate Disadvantages Spring 2011 big bi and bulky usually only one sensor reduced mobility expensive CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 8 Acoustic Trackers Example: Logitech Fly Mouse Mouse Also known as ultrasonic tracking Advantages no interference with metal relatively inexpensive Disadvantages Spring 2011 line of sight issues sensitive to certain noises CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Inertial Tracking Example: InterSense IS300, Wiimote Advantages no interference with metal long range no need for transmitter Disadvantages Spring 2011 subject to error accumulation only track orientation CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 9 Optical/VisionOptical/Vision-based trackers Exs: Vicon, HiBall, Exs: Vicon, HiBall, ARToolkit ARToolkit Advantages accurate can capture a large volume allow for untethered tracking Disadvantages image processing image processing techniques techniques occlusion problem Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Hybrid Tracking Example InterSense Example InterSense IS900 IS900 Advantages puts two or more technologies together to improve accuracy, reduce latency, etc… Disadvantages Spring 2011 adds complexity CAP6121 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 10 Tracking Devices: Eye Tracking Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Tracking Devices: Bend-Sensing BendGloves CyberGlove, 5DT Reports hand posture Gesture: Spring 2011 single posture series of postures of postures posture(s) + location or motion CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 11 Tracking Devices: Pinch Gloves Conductive cloth at Conductive cloth at fingertips fingertips Any gesture of 2 to 10 fingers, plus combinations of gestures > 115,000 gestures Spring 2011 CAP6121 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3D Mice Ring Mouse Mouse Fly Mouse Wand Cubic Mouse Dragonfly … Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 12 ShapeTape Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Human Input: Speech Frees hands hands Allows multimodal input No special hardware Specialized software Issues: recognition ambient Issues: recognition, ambient noise, noise, training, false positives, … Spring 2011 http://www.lindamoran.net/images/yelling.jpg CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 13 Human Input: Bioelectric Control Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Human Input: Body Sensing Devices Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 14 More Human Input Breathing device OSMOSE BrainBrain-body actuated control control Spring 2011 muscle movements thoughts! CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Why Build 3D UI Devices? Assist in designing new interaction techniques Improve upon existing techniques Provide interfaces for specific 3D interactions and Provide interfaces for specific 3D interactions and applications applications Give users more expressive power Develop new interaction styles Develop new and improved 3D interface hardware Fun!!!! http://www.uni-weimar.de/cms/medien/virtual-reality/research/interfaces/input-device-and-interaction-techniques.html Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality http://www.labri.fr/perso/hachet/CAT/ ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 15 Tools of the Trade Sensors, buttons, switches, controllers, etc… www.futurlec.com Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3D Input Device Building Strategies Device function What will the device sense? force motion button presses what physical device types are required? need to choose appropriate sensors digital/analog pressure, bend, potentiometers, thermistors conductive cloth (great sensing material) Sensor housing How will sensors be placed in the physical device? How to build the housing? Spring 2011 physical constraints physical comfort milling machine vacuform device 3D printer Lego bricks modeling clay CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 16 Device Ergonomics Good ergonomic design is crucial CyberGrasp by Immersion device housing housing control types Issues to consider device should be lightweight avoid fatigue simple to use easy to reach buttons and controls cont avoid undue strain don’t want to cause user pain Spring 2011 http://www.it.bton.ac.uk/staff/lp22/CS133/haptics.html CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Connecting Devices to the Computer Need to connect device to the computer USB serial port Bluetooth Often need a microcontroller (not always) small computer that can interface with other electronic components PIC (www.microchip.com) BasicX-24 -- easy to use BasicX programming in Basic has nice development kit A typical approach typical approach Spring 2011 build electronics with prototyping board write code in IDE and download to board test and debug put electronics on circuit board write device driver CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality www.basicx.com ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 17 Software for the Device Need to have software to use device in applications Several strategies write driver from scratch utilize existing software – provide drivers for many devices and machinery to create new ones VRPN developed at U. North Carolina VRPN – developed at U. North Carolina VRJuggler – developed at Iowa State interface device toolkits Spring 2011 need to know something about OS – low level support functions understanding of serial/USB communication protocols typical functions – open, close, read, write plug into API Phidgets I-CubeX CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Case Study 1 – Interaction Slippers Providing more powerful methods of expression Offload functionality to the user’s feet Input Device pair of commercial house slippers embedded Logitech Trackman Live!TM – wireless trackball conductive cloth Allows for toe and heel tapping for toe and heel tapping Interact with the Step WIM Spring 2011 miniature version of the world place on the floor toe tap to invoke the WIM CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 18 Case Study 2 – Reinventing the PinchTM Glove Pinch Gloves determines of two or more fingertips are touching uses conductive cloth designed for pinching and grabbing gestures at the time $2000 had problems with reliability Wanted to build custom device less expensive ($200) more flexibility flexibility www.fakespacelabs.com not just pinching gestures plugplug-n-play allow for a variety of switches Conductive Cloth Button Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Flex and Pinch Input Dealing with input device limitations Input Device bend sensing gloves vs. pinch gloves gloves improve existing interaction techniques 16 conductive cloth contacts used with bend sensing glove Can be placed anywhere Improve image plane interaction techniques interaction techniques Spring 2011 allow user to activate selection with primary hand multiple flex button configurations CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 19 CavePainting Table Improve a specific application explore prop-based propinteraction used for painting 3D scenes Input Device tracked paint brush paint cup props uses conductive cloth bucket Tool misc. knobs and switches Hold down brush button to Hold down brush button to paint paint Dip paint brush into paint cups to change strokes Use bucket to throw paint Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. FingerSleeve Inspiration for creating novel interaction techniques Pop through buttons Input Device use light and firm pressure worn on index finger made from elastic fabric and flexible plastic 6 DOF tracker attached to the back of the sleeve interesting design issues with button style and placement Principle light pressure used for temporary li action actions confirmed by firm pressure ZoomBack Technique Snapshot Technique Spring 2011 temporary and permanent travel CAP6121 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 20 Case Study 3 – 3motion 3D gesture interaction system developed by Keir et al. 2005, Digital Design Studio, Glasgow School of Art designed as inexpensive tracking solution used for gesture tracking Components single chip 3-axis linear accelerometer 3several buttons wireless bluetooth communication software SDK Tested in gaming environment and character manipulator Used on cell phone to play virtual golf Can you say, “Wii”? Spring 2011 http://research.navisto.ch/publications.html CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. From Lab to Production (1) Chord Gloves Mapes and Moshell (1995) PinchTM Gloves By Fakespace Cubic Mouse Cubic Mouse By Fakespace Fröhlich and Plate (2000) Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 21 From Lab to Production (2) The CAT (Computer Action Table) The CAT By Immersion SAS Hachet et al. (2003) www.immersion.fr HiBall 6D Tracker HiBall By 3rd Tech http://www.3rdtech.com/HiBall.htm Welch (1996) http://www.cs.unc.edu/~tracker/media/html/hiball.html Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Prototyping Toolkits – Phidgets Phidgets (Greenberg and Fitchett 2001) – building blocks for low cost sensing/control uses USB clean separation of hardware and software simple API Don’t need to worry about Variety of sensors microprocessors communication protocols soldering Analog inputs touch light force vibration rotation Digital Inputs Other tools accelerometers switches RFID tags etc… Digital Outputs www.phidgets.com Spring 2011 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 22 Prototyping Toolkits – I-CubeX I-Cube (Mulder 1995) – uses the Musical Instrument Device Interface (MIDI) MIDI – protocol for communicating control information also uses Bluetooth (wireless) similar advantages to Phidgets no microcontoller programming no circuit design software API Variety of Sensors air touch bend temperature magnetic light tilt Spring 2011 infusionsystems.com 3D Acceleration Sensor Touch Sensor CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality BioBeat Sensor ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Next Class Selection and Manipulation and Manipulation Readings Spring 2011 3DUI Book – Chapter 4 CAP6121 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 23 ...
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