AdHocSurvey

AdHocSurvey - Making Wireless Work A Survey of Secure...

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Making Wireless Work I n a multihop wireless ad hoc network, mobile nodes cooperate to form a network without using any in- frastructure such as access points or base stations. In- stead, the mobile nodes forward packets for each other, allowing communication among nodes outside wireless transmission range. The nodes’ mobility and the fundamentally limited capacity of the wireless medium, together with wireless transmission effects such as attenu- ation, multipath propagation, and interference, combine to create signiFcant challenges for routing protocols op- erating in an ad hoc network. Examples of applications for ad hoc networks range from military operations and emergency disaster relief to community networking and interaction among meeting attendees or students during a lecture. In these and other ad hoc networking applications, security in the routing protocol is necessary to guard against attacks such as mali- cious routing misdirection. This article reviews attacks on ad hoc networks and discusses current approaches for establishing crypto- graphic keys in ad hoc networks. We describe the state of research in secure ad hoc routing protocols and its re- search challenges. Attacks on ad hoc networks Attacks on ad hoc network routing protocols generally fall into one of two categories: • Routing-disruption attacks. The attacker attempts to cause legitimate data packets to be routed in dysfunctional ways. • Resource-consumption attacks . The attacker injects packets into the network in an attempt to consume valuable network resources such as bandwidth or to consume node resources such as memory (storage) or computation power. ±rom an application-layer perspective, both attacks are instances of a denial-of-service (DoS) attack. An example of a routing-disruption attack is for an at- tacker to send forged routing packets to create a routing loop, causing packets to traverse nodes in a cycle without reaching their destinations, thus consuming energy and available bandwidth. An attacker might similarly create a routing blackhole , which attracts and drops data packets. An attacker creates a blackhole by distributing forged routing information (that is, claiming falsiFed short dis- tance information); the attacker attracts trafFc and can then discard it. In a special case of a black hole, an attacker could create a gray hole , in which it selectively drops some packets but not others, for example, by forwarding rout- ing packets but not data packets. An attacker also might attempt to cause a node to use a route detour (suboptimal routes), or partition the network by injecting forged rout- ing information to prevent one set of nodes from reach- ing another. An attacker might attempt to make a route through itself appear longer by adding virtual nodes to the route; we call this attack a gratuitous detour because a shorter route exists and would otherwise have been used.
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AdHocSurvey - Making Wireless Work A Survey of Secure...

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