03 - r e Procastinatr Elizabeth Brown is the director of...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–15. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 12
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 14
Background image of page 15
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: r e Procastinatr Elizabeth Brown is the director of the H6 Robotics Team at her company. A month ago, Jane Ganders, theV ice President of Research and Development, asked each team in the company to provide a detailed progress report discussing the status of its project. The buzz around the company says that finances are growing tight, and management is look- ing for weak or bloated projects that could be cut to save money. The report is due a month from now. Elizabeth and her team have begun gathering information for the progress report, including mea— surements, data, and costs. Now she needs each member of her team to write part of the report, describing his or her contribution to the project and listing any successes and shortcomings. Her problem is Bill Hands. He is a good en— gineer, but he is a notorious procrastinator when it comes to writing. Elizabeth has seen him fran- tically slapping together his progress reports at the last minute. Meanwhile, his proposals and reports are usually shoddy because he always waits until the last moment to write them. He says, “I write best under pressure.” In reality, though, Elizabeth knows he writes very poorly under pressure. Normally, Bill’s tendency to procrastinate is annoying but manageable, because his documents have been written exclusively for use within the company. But this report to the vice president is crucial, because it might determine whether Elizabeth’s team keeps working on this project. A shoddy report could mean a few members of the team would be let go or reassigned. So, Elizabeth is determined not to allow Bill or anyone else on the team to sabotage the report because they procrastinated. If you were Elizabeth, how might you use the writing process you learned in this chapter to ensure that Bill does not procrastinate on his part of the report? How would you help Bill and the rest of the team to schedule their writing process so you receive their best work? How can you use the writing process to ensure that the finished report is of high quality? CHAPTER Readers and Contexts of Use - How to use the computer as a reader analysis tool. - How to develop a comprehensive profile of a document’s readers. 0 How to sort your readers into primary, secOndary, tertiary 0r gatekeeper audiences. , 0 Techniques for identifying readers’ needs, values, and attitudes about you and your document. ' How to analyze the physical, economic, political, and ethical contexts of use that influence how readers will interpret your text. 0 How to anticipate the needs of international and cross—cultural readers. To learn about ways to overcome ’ procrastination, go to www.ablongman.com/iohnsonweb2/2.17 nowing your readers is essential to effective technical communication. More than ever, people don’t have time to slog through information they don’t need. So, you should find out exactly what your readers need to know and how they want that information presented. Another challenge is the ever-increasing importance of international communica- tion through electronic networks. In technical fields, you will find yourself regularly communicating with people who speak other languages, have different customs, and hold different expectations. Computers have broken down many of the geographical barriers that once separated people and cultures. It is now common to communicate with people around the world on a daily basis. In this chapter, you will learn how to use your computer as a reader analysis tool to “profile” the people who will use your documents or hear your presentations.Your profiles “all help you tailor your document or presentation exactly to your readers’ needs and the places where they will use the information you offer. Profiling Your Readers In technical communication, documents are designed to suit the needs of specific types of readers. For this reason, early in the writing process, you should profile the types of people who might be interested in your document (Figure 3.1). Your readers only want the information they need to make a decision or take action. As the writer, you need to find out what they need and how they want the information presented. Developing a Reader Profile Figure 3.1: Who are they? To develop a profile of your readers, use the Five-W and How Questions to look at them from a variety of perspectives. r Profile of Readers 6 Reader profiles are sketches of your readers’ tendencies, abili- ties, experience, needs, values, and attitudes. Reader profiles are sketches of your readers’ tendencies, abilities, experiences, needs, values, and attitudes. To build a profile, begin asking yourself the Five—W and How Questions about your readers. Who might read this document? What information do they need? Where will they read the document? When will they read the document? Why will they be reading it? How will they be reading it? As you answer these questions, keep in mind the following guidelines about your readers and how they prefer to read. Guideline One: Readers are “raideis” for information—People don’t read 5 technical documents for pleasure. Instead, most readers are raiding your document for the information they need to make a decision or take action. Guideline Two: Readers are wholly responsible for interpreting your text— You won’t be available to explain what your document means, so your read- ers need to be able to easily figure out what you are telling them. For websites that offer other ways to use the FiveW and How Questions, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.1 Guideline Three. Readers want only “need-t0-kflow” infer- the center ring. Each ring in the chart identifies your readers from most important I i , - : _ ' ‘ ders) to least important (tertiary readers). ' i r Readers _ ant ou to we them only the Norma (Dummy lea . . . . . ‘ About You Wang}? 3:36;: a d dilfion a1 intern] only makes the To use the VVriter—Centered Chart, begm filling in the names and titles of the primary, ' l 0 Readers are WhOHY POD ey. ' ,d find , secondary, tertiary, and gatekeeper readers who will or might look over your work. ‘r responsible for interpreting LIIfOI'matIOD they Want hal er to ' I a your text. II I II I Guideline F0111“: Reader: Pl‘efei'hcogmssrfigtts;{figiigmr’ hhnrun hr: \nrgits ru 'l lU‘,\ indium The primary readers are the people to whom i ‘ > o ReadersIare raiders 0 the better. Usually, the Qnger e do: Y I ea’ders refer your document is addressed. They are usually considered the action takers because the r :I n information. II likely that people are gomg to rea dlI.Ii (fit it the OP information you are providing them will allow them to do something or make a deci— ‘1, I'" ' Readers Want 0W need‘ documents that g“ to the Pomt an g g p sion. Usually your document will have only one or two primary readers, or types of E toknow” information. tam 'mfofmatlon, 111 primary readers_ I I I Readers prefer concrse . . . _ d , _ f , documents with grap -CS n ° Gurdehne Flve. Rea els p1e el , , rl'l texts. and effective page design—We live in a visual culture. Large blocks of text intimidate most readers. So, include graphics and use page design to make your document more Sl:1(1(l\‘l).\lt\' ltl-i \Dl-‘lts (ADVISORX) The secondary readers are people who advise the primary readers. Usually, they are experts in the field, or they have special knowl— edge that the primary readers require to make a decision. They might be engineers, 0 Readers prefer documents with graphics and effective page design. readable. technicians, lawyers, scientists, doctors, accountants, and others to whom the primary Think about how are you reading this book. More than readers Wll] tum fOI‘ adVlCB- ' ' ‘ - - ' rmation.You want the book to be concise I 11kgly,‘yo;lflar'e fialdfltl'g ;O;:Lf:ie:)d::0v\vvalitfifhese things tOO ‘l'liR'l‘l ARY Rift liliRS ll-i\' \l .l '.\‘l‘()l{8l The tertiary readers Include others Who may an Visu ymeresm. - have an interest in your documents information. They are often evaluators of you, your team, or your company. These readers might be local reporters, lawyers, audi— Identifying YOUI‘ Readers tors, historians, politicians, community activists, environmentalists, or perhaps your You should always begin by identifying the readers of your document. Figure 3.2 company’s competitors. Even if you don’t expectIyour document Ito ever fall into shows aWriter—Centered Analysis Chart that will help you locate the varlorls p801)le these readers hands, you should keep them in mind to av01d saying anything that who might 100k OVCI‘ your text (Mathes 8 Stevenson, 1976).YOU, as the WI‘ltel‘, are 111 could put you or your company at 11519 Flgure 33a for exglrnple7 shows a memo 111 which the tertiary readers were not kept in mind. The gatekeepers are Types of Readers people who will need to look over your document before it is sent to the primary readersYour most common gate— keeper is your immediate supervisor. ln some cases, though, your company’s lawyers, accountants, and others may need to sign off on the document before it is sent out. Writer-Centered Analysis Chart I (i.\’l‘lil{lil-il’l-ZRS (Sl‘PlillVlSURSl Figure 3.2: A Gatekeepers Writer-Centered Analysis Chart starts with you in the center and identifies the various people , 0 Primary readers: Action takers Secondary readers: Advisors Tertiary who may be 0 Tertiary readers: Evaluators iggfiéictj m your 1 ' Gatekeepers: superVisors Each of these four types of readers will look for differ— ent kinds of information. The primary readers are the most important, so their needs come first. Nevertheless, a well— written document also anticipates the needs of the secondary, tertiary, and gate— keeper readers. Secondary Primary Profiling Your Readers” Needs, Values, and Attitudes Now that you have identified the readers of your document, you should develop pro— files that describe their needs, values, and attitudes. Don’t assume that your readers have the same needs, values, and attitudes as you do. Readers often have very differ— ent characteristics and expectations than the writers of a document. Writer ‘- f ~ downloadable version of the Writer- What else do readers want? For answers, go to I II For a I WM“, . ' h web2 3.2 ; ‘ l Centered Analysrs Chart, go to Iablongman com/lo "so" / 3 ' www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.3 Primary readers of the document are listed here. The first paragraph is clear about the purpose of memo. The main point —i—> of the memo is stated up front. This list summarizes the current situation. A Memo That Does Not Consider Tertiary Readers |_ October 16, 2003 TO: Gen. Dick Myers ——’——> Paul Wolfowitz Gen. Pete Pace Doug Feith FROM: Donald Rumsfeld W SUBJECT: Global War on Terrorism The questions I posed to combatant commanders this week were: Are we winning or losing the Global War on Terror? ls DoD changing fast enough to deal with the new let century security environment? Can a big institution change fast enough? Is the USG changing fast enough? DoD has been organized, trained and equipped to fight big armies, navies and air forces. It is not possible to change DoD fast enough to successfully fight the global war on terror; an alternative might be to try to fashion a new institution, either within DOD or elsewhere—one that seamlessly focuses the capabilities of several departments and agencies on this key problem. With respect to global terrorism, the record since September 11th seems to be: ~ We are having mixed results with Al Qaida, although we have put considerable pressure on themenonetheless, a great many remain at large. — USG has made reasonable progress in capturing or killing the top 55 Iraqis. ~ USG has made somewhat slower progress tracking down the Taliban— Omar, Hekmatyar, etc. # With respect to the Ansar Al-Islam, we are just getting started. Have we fashioned the right mix of rewards, amnesty, protection and confidence in the US? Does DOD need to think through new ways to organize, train, equip and focus to deal with the global war on terror? Source: The Smoking Gun. http://www.thesmokingguncom. Figure In this memo. U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was strikingly candid about the situa- tion in Iraq at the time. His memo was leaked to the press (a tertiary reader), creating a minor contro- versy because the memo did not reflect what the U.S. Administra— tion had been saying about progress in Iraq. You can see the original memo at www. ablongmancom/ johnsonweb2/3.4. Want to see other controversial documents? Go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.4 Author returns to the main point of memo. L» This list frames questions that the brimary readers should answer. The final action item is stated for the primary readers. Are the Ichanges we have and are making too modest and incremental? My 1mpresston is that we have not yet made truly bold moves, although we have made many sensrble, logical moves in the right direction, but are they enough? Today, we lack metrics to know if we are winning or losing the global war on terror. Are we capturing, killing or deterring and dissuading more terrorists every day than the madrassas and the radical clerics are recruiting, training and deploying against us? Does the US need to fashion a broad, integrated plan to stop the next generation of terrorists? The US is putting relatively little effort into a long-range plan, but we are putting a great deal of effort into trying to stop terrorists. The cost-benefit ratio 15 against us! Our cost is billions against the terrorists’ costs of millions. _/—> ° Do we need a new organization? - How do we stop those who are financing the radical madrassa schools? - Is our current situation such that “the harder we work, the behinder we get”? It is pretty clear that the coalition can win in Afghanistan and Iraq in one way or another, but it will be a long, hard slog. Does CIA need a new finding? Should we create a private foundation to entice radical madrassas to a more moderate course? What else should we be considering? Please be prepared to discuss this at our meeting on Saturday or Monday. Thanks. DHdeh 101503-58 nunun-noun-non-"unnu-"cu-nu-nun-un-u-unun-u."no.""nun-unnu- Please Respond by Figure 3.3: (continued) HDNV'ID V .lV With these reader characteristics in mind, you can begin viewing I e. To help you deepen this perspective, a Reader Analysrs Chart, ‘ ' ectix fiom thelr persp dentify your readers’ needs, values, like the one shown in Figure 3.4, can help you 1 and attitudes toward your text. Reader Analysis Chart “ Goalkeepers To use the Reader Analysis Chart, fill in what you know about your readers’ As you begin considering your readers, think about some of the following issues: Readers’ familiarity with the subject Readers’ professional experience Readers’ educational level Readers’ reading and comprehension level Readers’ skill level needs, values, and attitudes. decision important response Determining How Readers Make Decisions 0 Needs—information the readers need to take action or make a 0 Values—issues, goals, or beliefs that the readers feel are 0 Attitudes—the readers' emotional your company to you, your project, or your document Mil-L08 What do your primary readers need to make a decision or take action? \Vhat do the sec— _ ondary readers need if they are going to make pos1— tive recommendations to the primary readers? What are the tertiary and gatekeeper readers looking for in your document? Hill-ZS What do your readers value most? Do they value efficiency and consistency? Do they value accuracy? ls profit a key concern? How much do they value environmental or social concerns? For a downloadable version of the Reader Analysis Chart, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.5 Figure 3.4: To better understand your readers, fill this Reader Analysis Chart with notes about their characteristics. \l 'iii 1 iii)» What are your readers’ attitudes toward you, your company, and the subject of your document? \Vill your readers be excited, upset, wary, positive, hope- ful, careful, concerned, skeptical, or gladdened by what you are telling them? As you fill in the Reader Analysis Chart, you will be making strategic guesses about your readers. Put a question mark (?) in spaces where you aren’t sure about your readers’ needs, values, or attitudes. These question marks highlight where you need to do more research on your readers. Take Note Avoid falling into the “commonsense trap." Different people have different ideas about what is common sense. Keep in mind that your views about what is common sense may differ significantly from the views of others. The Internet is a great place to find information on your readers. Most companies have a website on which they place biographical information about their employees. People also create personal websites that you can look over. You can learn a great amount about readers’ needs, values, and attitudes by paying attention to what they say about themselves. To find out more, you might also interview people who are Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at your company or who hire themselves out as consultants. These experts may be able to give you insights into your readers’ likely characteristics. Above all, your goal is to view the situation from your readers’ perspectiveYour profile will help you anticipate how your readers act, react, and make decisions. Profiling Readers with Search Engines Search engines on the Internet are great tools for collecting information on just about any topic, including your readers and the contexts in which they will use your document. The most popular search engines are Google, Altavista,Yahoo, Teoma, Lycos, HotBot, Excite, and AllTheWeb. Each of these search engines will allow you to type in keywords, a phrase, or even a whole question (Figure A). The search engine will find any websites with those words in them. You can learn a great amount about your readers by typing in a few keywords. For example, let’s say you are writing a proposal to the Salmon Recovery Program in Washington State.You can type in the phrase: Salmon Recovery Program in Washington The search engine will pull up thousands of pages that refer to this subject (Google found over 100,000 pages). The engine will usually rank them for you, trying to present you with the most relevant pages first. Of course, you couldn’t read that many pages in your lifetimeYou need to narrow your search with some helpful symbols and strategies. For example, perhaps you notice that Alice Guthrie is the director of the Salmon Recovery Program. So, you refine your search with plus and minus signs. What is the commonsense trap? To find out, ~ i i go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.6 -, i r ' To find websites that help you search for information about people, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.7 An Internet Search Engine Figure A: Type in "WW Z;§,’::T;,.:L:;.. i; I ... W 7.... 'f if .':’..:::I' some keywords, l6] hrtp.Hiwnvgooglecom/ V lCl' and the search ' engine will look for information on Google.com is one of the more popular search engines. 1M h) Personalized Home I Sign in K ; 1 that subject. Keywords 3Y6 Web images Vrdeo"*"" News Maps more» typed here. NMWV'QVV'TMHMWN MWWWZKT-Wflfivwkv w ' ’ Coogle Search J‘ I'm Feeling Lucky +\~'— The “Feeling ,Mil Lucky" button takes you immediately to the most relevant website located by the search engine. Advertising Prourams < Business Solutions » About Google {2006 000ng DONE Source: Google, http://www.goog/e.com. GOOGLE is a trademark of Google, Inc. The + sign—Putting a + in front of words tells the search engine to find only pages that have those words in them. Salmon Recovery Program +Washington +Alice +Guthrie m Here, the search engine will pull up only pages with “Alice” and“Guthrie” in them. For more The — sign—Putting a — in front of words will eliminate pages with information information on you don’t want using search ' . _ engines, see Salmon Recovery Program +Washlngton +Alice +Guthrie —restaurant Chapter 7, _ . I _ , page 153. With this minus Sign, you can elimmate any pages that refer to Arlo Guthrie 5 song “Alice’s Restaurant.” Quotation marks—If you put a phrase in quotes, the search engine will look for that exact phrase: “Salmon Recovery Program" +Washington +Alice +Guthrie —restaurant Wildcard symbols—Some search engines also have symbols for “wildcards.” These symbols are helpful when you know most of a phrase, but not all of it. “Salmon ? Program” +Washington +Alice +Guthrie ~restaurant Different search engines use different wildcard symbols. Commonly used symbols include ?, *, and %. It is amazing how much you can learn about your readers (and other t0pics) with search engines. These helpful tools will allow you to tailor your documents to the spe— cific needs of your readers. Links to several search engines are available at www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.8 Want more search engine tips? Go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.9 Profiling Contexts of Use The places where people will read your document can strongly influence how they in- terpret what you say. So, you should also build a profile of the contexts of use in which they will read or use your document. Identifying the Context of Use Perhaps the most obvious concern is the physical context in which the document will be used. Will your readers be in their office or at a meeting? Will they be on the fac— tory floor, trying to repair a robotic arm? Or, are they in the emergency room, trying to save someone’s life? Each of these physical contexts will alter the way your readers interpret your document. But context of use goes beyond your readers’ physical context.Your readers may also be influenced by the economic, ethical, and political issues that shape how they see the world. To help you sort out these various contexts, you can use a Context Analysis Chart like the one shown in Figure 8.5. Context Analysis Chart Physical Economic Political Ethical Context Context Context Primary Readers Readers’ Company Readers’ Industry Here is how to use the Context Analysis Chart: Fill in what you know about the physical, economic, political, and ethical issues that might influence the primary readers, their company, and their industry. l’i l\'Sl(i.\l. (,(),\'l‘l«‘.\'l' Where will your readers use your document? How do these various places affect how they will read your document? How should you write and design the document to fit these places? For a downloadable version of the Context Analysis Chart, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.10 Figure 3.5: Each reader is influenced by physical, economic, political, and ethical concerns. A Context Analysis Chart anticipates these concerns for the primary readers, their company, and their industry. Context of Use l-;(.l).\'()\ll( (.(),\.’ll:1.\‘l \Vhat are the economic issues that “all influence your readers’ decisions? 0 Physical context—the places where What are the costs and benefits of your ideas? EDNV'ID V .|.\'I the readers will use your document How would accepting your ideas change the finan— 0 Economic context—the money- related issues that will restrain the their industry? kinds of actions possible 0 Political context—the micropolitical P0l.l’i‘l(‘,,\l. (ZOX'l'liX'l‘ What are the political and macropolitical trends that will forces influencing you and your readers? On a guide your readers rnicropolitical level, how will your ideas affect 0 Ethical context—the personal, cial situation of your readers, their company, or your readers’ relationships with you, their super— social, and environmental issues visors, or their colleagues? On a macropolitical that shape the readers’ responses level, how will political trends at the local, state, on identifying ethical issues, see Chapter 5, page 95. federal, and international levels shape how your readers interpret your ideas? li'l‘lll(1;\l. (LON'l‘liX'l‘ How will your ideas affect the rights, values, and well—being of others? Does your document involve any social or environmental issues that might be of concern to your readers? Will any laws or rules be bent or broken if your readers do what you want? Put a question mark (?) in spaces where you don’t have specific information about your readers’ physical, economic, political, and ethical contextsYou can then turn to the Internet for answers, or you can interview Subject Matter Experts who may have the answers you need. Filling out the Reader Analysis and Context Analysis worksheets may seem like a lot of work, especially for conventional, everyday documents. For any document, you should jot down a few notes about your readers and the contexts in which they will use your document. For important documents, especially longer ones, a thorough analysis of the readers and contexts of use is worth every minute you spend. Your writing will be much stronger and influential. Using Profiles to Your Own Advantage Now you are ready to use your Reader Analysis and Context Analysis charts to strengthen your writing and make it more informed and persuasive. In your charts, circle or highlight the most important terms, concepts, and phrases. The items you circle are the tensions that you will need to address as you collect information and draft the document. As you draft your document, your analysis of readers and contexts of use will help you — ° make strategic decisions about What information to include in your document. Readers don’t need all the information you have available. They need only enough to make a decision or take action. Want more help with reader analysis? Go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.11 0 gigging: (13321351131261? 1:: grighlight the information that is most important to up from Wham they can findaitE your readers consider crucial should be moved 3:75:21 Sergegil‘lsluiazitye style that Will appeal to your readersYour notes about and benefSI 1tudes can be used to shape the document to their biases design the document for the places it will be usedYour understanding of the context in which the docum ' . Visual impact. ent Will be used Will help You create the maximum F0 ‘ . . pOtenic;r;11pZi;[:;11tLidrpacct;m§ntsé thisx/(lifieper understanding will give your writing extra . ea ers ' ‘ ' then. pom of View. apprecrate your efforts to see the s1tuation from F' ‘ the \igelélfie; j113(SVaialnd 3t.h7 show documents from the same website about the same topic ment Figure 3 Guiss, WTail;aretwiiftten to two different types of readers. The first docu— , ' , . , en 0 e general public. Not‘ ' ' zatrgli, style, and design to appeal to this audience. Ice how It uses content, orgam— come I: sizcgrridn document, Figure 3.7, is written to medical personnel. Notice how the ical personn 1 Isfrfe complex and the style is less personal in the document for med- e . ect1ve reader analysis and context analysis allowed the author of these documents (probabl . y the same erson t ' ' t1on to two very different kinds of reaIders. ) 0 Effecuvely present the same meIma— International and Cross-Cultural Communlcation Computers have greatly blurred geographical and political boundaries. Whether Zipeai'zgevleloping software documentation or describing a heart transplant roc — , y 1 ocuments w1ll be read and used by people from different culturesp 6 Your documents will likely be used by people around the world. Style is action oriented. images reinforce written text. ,1 I. Fight the Bite! Avoid Mosquito Bites to Avoid Infection 1 Document Written to the General Public Human illness from West Nile virus is rare, even in areas where the virus has been reported. The chance that any one person is going to become ill from a mosquito bite is low. Three Ways to Reduce your West Nile Virus Risk 1. Avoid Mosquito Bites 2. Mosquito—Proof Your Home 3. Help Your Community Avoid Mosquito Bites! Apply Insect Repellent Containing DEET (Look for: N,N-diethyI-meta- to/uamide) to exposed skin when you go outdoors. Even a short time sitting outdoors can be long enough to get a mosquito bite. For details on when and how to apply repellent, see CDC’s Insect Repellent Use and Safety page: http‘l/www.cdc.qov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/oa/insect repellenthtm . _ M Clothing Can Help Reduce Mosquito Bites. When possible, wear long-sleeves, long Headings help pants and socks when outdoors. Mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing, so spraying readers scan document. Common examples are used to illustrate points. clothes with repellent containing permethrin or DEET will give extra protection. Don't apply repellents containing permethrin directly to skin. Do not spray repellent containing DEET on the skin under your clothing. Be Aware of Peak Mosquito Hours. The hours from dusk to dawn are peak mosquito biting times. Consider avoiding outdoor activities during these times -< or take extra care to use repellent and protective clothing during evening and early morning. Mosquito-Proof Your Home Drain Standing Water: Mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water. Limit the number of places around your home for mosquitoes to breed by getting rid of items that hold water. Need examples? Learn more on the Prevention of West Nile Virus question and answer page: http:/fivwwtdc.qov/ncidod/dvbid westniIe/qa/prevention.htm Install or Repair Screens. Some mosquitoes like to come indoors. Keep them outside by having well-fitting screens on both windows and doors. Offer to help neighbors whose screens might be in bad shape. Help Your Community Clean Up. Mosquito breeding sites can be everywhere. Neighborhood clean up days can be organized by civic or youth organizations to pick up containers from vacant lots, parks and to encourage people to keep thier yards free of standing water. Mosquitoes don't care about fences, so breeding sites anywhere in the neighborhood are important. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), http://www.odogov/ncidod/dvbid/ westniIe/index.htm. figure 3.6: This document on West Nile virus was written to the general public. It is action oriented and not very technical. The images also help reinforce the message, and the layout makes it highly scannable. Links provide more information. \ Report Dead Birds to Local Authorities. Dead birds may be a sign that West Nile virus is Circulating between birds and the mosquitoes in an area. Over 110 species of birds are known to have been Infected with West Nile virus, though not all infected birds will die. By reporting dead birds to state and local health departments, the public plays an important role in monitoring West Nile virus. Because state and local agencies have different policies for collecting and testing birds check the Links to State and Local Government Sites page to find Information about reporting dead birds in your area: http:/ www.ccleqov ncidod/dvbid westnile Clt‘,’ states.htm . This page contains more information about reporting dead birds and dealing with bird carcasses: htip: www.cdc.qovlncidod 'ci'vbld westmle qa/wnv birdsfntm Mosquito Control Programs. Check with local health authorities to see if there is an organized mosquito control program in your area. if no program exists, work with your local government officials to establish a program. The American Mosquito Control Association (‘.‘.”.‘.'w.mosgultoorg) can provide advice, and their book Organization for Mosquito Control is a useful reference. More questions about mosquito control? A source for information about pesticides and repellents is the National Pesticide information Center: http:[[nQiC.orSt.edu/ , vhvhich)also operates a toll-free information line: 1-800-858-7378 (check their Web site for ours . find out more about local prevention efforts. Find state and local West Nile virus Information and contacts on the Links to State and Local Government Sites page. Figure 3.6: (continued) “ a i .L A Document Written to Expat 5.3: :— Figure 3.7: Figure 3 7_ ‘Ccntcrs for Disease Control and Prevention This dqcument (continued) 1" _ was written to r- q.-- f I West Nile Virus (WNV) infection Clinicians and . I ‘ . Information for Clinicians I V " , other medical . I - personnel. it IS __Diagnosis and Re ariiugi continual ' ‘ “ ' far more Dia . g technical in style for patients with encephalitis or meningitis can be obtained through local or state health ‘ . , ‘ ‘ld Infection Sild (peSIgn tiltan o ghcdmgsstFiflicient diagnostic method is detection of lgM antibody to WNV in serum or cerebral spinal 1 Most \VNV infections are mild and olieli clinically tiiinpptircnt. I ocumen ir::flulnosorb:‘:ll‘lc:sl;dV‘E‘hhgzhEdSB’QSfIllness onset ustng the lgM antibody capture enzynginked 0 Approximately 20% of those infected develop a mild Illness (West Nile leverl- written to the 0 Since [gM amibod . 2105 not ems; II ' blood b - b « - - o The incubation period is thought to range from 3 to l4 days. genera public. nervous Systcm inaction - le - ram arrler. lgM anllbody In CSF strongly suggests cemml o S 'm tonis Icnerally last 3 to 6 days. . _ . . I ' ‘ _ I A A ‘ Reports tinnieariiei outbreaks describe the tnild form of \VNV infection as a Nevertheless, it h 45 .73 ppm/MG ° agalnlsl or recs-1dr wigs/ted wnh related flawviruses (e.g.. ofien accompanied by contains much of dawn ,7,” ’ P 7 B may “We Wm" MAC-ELISA results- Language is ’ "W's". : the same ’ ‘ " \ Re onin Sus cctcd \VNV inr ction , anorexia " . . "2. Refer to local and state health de ailment re ortin v rc uir n t ' much more i nausea i {ash h d “h V Il'lfOl’mathFl. ‘l“\\.§tlngtiy/lu-jilgil/d‘ bid/hN"“gain—\mm'hlhl 3: Cl ‘3 ten 5. technical : ’ “up a cum.“ 3 o XINV‘encephali'ti‘s is on the list of designated nationally notifiable arboviral cnccphalitides. ' ' " ~ ’ N” f H | oi been determined in the United States. 0, 53!)“c "fem’lgms '5 “P‘mabl? 1" 50ml? JUriSdiCtions. (and prectse). The full clinical spectrum 3r“ 65‘ 'le 6“” “’5 " The timely identification of persons \vrtli acute WNV or other arbovirril infection may have significant public Severe infection :1:f:l;l‘li;:15pllcal|0lls and Will likely augment the public health response to reduce the risk of additional human Approximately 1 in ISO infectious will result in severe neurological diseach ' . o The most significant risk factor for developing severe noiirological disease is advanced age. 0 Encephalitis is more commonly reported than menlngfm; . . . In recent outbreaks. symptoms occurring among patients hospitalized with severe disease include Laboratory Findings r fever i gastrointestinal symptoms Among patients in recent outbreaks I , weakness ) change in memal slams - I V ' o Total-leukocyte counts tn peripheral blood were mostly normal or elevated. with lympliocytopcnia and o A minority of patients with severe disease developed a ninculopupular or iiiorbilliforni rash mvolvtng anpmm also Pccumng I ' Document is the neck. trunk. arms. or legs. . I o Hiponalremm was sometimes present. particularly among patients with encephalitis. 0 Several pmicms experienced severe muscle weakness and “mud paralySlS' 0 Examination ofthc ccrebrosptnal fluid ((SF) showed pleocytosis. usually uith a predominance of more focused o Neurological presentations included ‘ V W il‘mnlwfino q”; // lymphocytes. ‘ /I/ i ataxia and extrapymmidal signs D optic neuritis ' w l 't’ in) (v 1 0 Protein was universally clcvated_ on pro“ g r cmniul nerve abnomialities r polyradicnlitis igr‘v\[i 1:0 vitae”? o Glucose “as normal, . ' ‘ information , myclms i scmims I I V i I" o Computed tomographic scans‘ofthc brain mostly did not show evidence of acute disease. bu1 in about Although not observed in recent outbreaks. myocarditis, paiicreutitis. and fiilminant hepatitis have been lml Mn“: °"§‘ll‘|'d.°r‘l33”en15i mflgflfllc resonance imaging ShmVEd enhanflmenl Grille IBPlflmenillgeS. llle than encour- described. [)“naflgni peritenlricu ar areas. or both. a in action. g g Cli al Sus icion . . ‘ . ' Dmgnosis nt‘wNv infection is based on a high index ot‘clinical suspicion and obtaining spemfic laboratory tests. _ ‘ - Treatment is supportive, often involving hospitalization, intravenous fluids rcs irato su rt d o WNV. or other arboviral diseases such as St. hotiis CnCCPlltlllllS.'SllDtlld be strongly eonstdercd in adults prevention or secondary infections rm patients with severe disease. , p ry . ppo . an 350 years Who dCVCIDP unexplained cncclel‘I‘S 0‘ ‘"°"1“E“15 1" summer 0" early “ill I . O Ribavirin in high doses and interferon alpha-2h were found to have some activilt‘ against WNV in vitro. 0 The local presence of \\’NV enzootic activity or other human cases should further raise suspicton. but “.0 conlrgllsd studies have been mnwlmd on [he use “these or other lncdivcalioni including o Obmining a ween! [rave] history is algo'irnporlflnt. I I steroids, antiseizure drugs, or osmotic agents, in the management of WNV encephalitis. - - Note: Severe neurological disease due to \VNV Infection has occurred in patients olall ages. Year-round I Des'gn Is not transmission is possible in some areas. Themfore, \VNV should be considered in all persons \\’Ill'l unexplained ‘ ‘H‘ .Ti . .. .. . A as scannable. cnccph'llllls ’md menmgl ' I‘ur tlrldtlwlml clinical Ilifnnnullon, please refer l0 Petersen LR and illnrfin AA, “West Nile l’irnr: A Primer for lhg Clmician[Rei'imr]. " Annalx ofIn/ernal Medicine (August 6) 2002' [37173-9 Diagnosis and Re ior _ _ . t ' ~ _ - - - Procedures for suhmming diagnosfic samples and reporfing Demo“; with suspected \VNV infection Forlclmrcnl-umhl Iaharatmyciit‘c definitions, see "Epirlemic/Epizonlic ll'cxl Nile Virus in [he Uni/mlS/alui: van among states and jurisdictions. Links to state and local websites are available at Revised (mule/Ines Surveillance. Prevention, and Can/ml, 20013211 V littpf initixtltzginitigiilntlfihliitliutwiiiilekit} \tiilt'\.litilr gut i:.r.iu,/.iti»/.I H. Misti. xii/minim Jim” ii“)??- iiiio‘r‘iiiiii:ioii «,flii or) iouml iiioiiiiiioil. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/ westnile/index.htm. To learn more about working in high‘context cultures, go to Chapter 6, page 138. The use of computers, especially the Internet, has only heightened the necessity of working and communicating with people from different cultures (Hoft, 1995; Reynolds éValentine, 2004). It’s all very exciting—and very challenging. Even in North America, the ability to communicate cross—culturally is very impor~ tant.Your company’s product or service might be used by people whose first language is Spanish or a Native American language. Moreover, cultural differences among American readers may influence how your document or presentation is received. International and cross—cultural issues will affect the content, organization, style, and design of your document. Differences in Content Cultures have different expectations about content in technical documentation: 0 In China, the content of your documents and presentations should be fact based, and you should focus on long—term benefits for your readers and you, not short—term gains. In business, the Chinese tend to trust relationships above all, so they look for facts in documents and they do not like overt attempts to persuade. 0 In Mexico, South America, and many African countries, family and personal backgrounds are of great importance. It is common for family—related issues to be mentioned in public relations, advertising, and documentation. Business re— lationships and meetings often start with exchanges about families and per- sonal interests. 0 In the Middle East, Arabs often put a premium on negotiation and bargaining, especially when it comes to the price of a service or product. As a result, it is crucial that all the details in documents are spelled out exactly before the two sides try to work out a deal. In most cases, though, the first offer you make will rarely be considered the final offer. 0 In Asian countries, the reputation of the writer or company is essential for es— tablishng the credibility of the information (Haneda f} Shima, 1983). Interpersonal relationships and prior experiences can sometimes even trump empirical evidence in Asia. ' Also in Asia, contextual cues can be more important than content. In other words, how someone says something may be more important than what he or she is saying. For example, when Japanese people speak or write in their own language, they rarely use the word no. Instead, they rely on contextual cues to signal the refusal. As a result, when Japanese is translated into English, these “high—context” linguistic strategies are often misunderstood (Chaney 8 Martin, 2004). Similarly in Indonesia, the phrase“Yes, but” actually means “no” when someone is speaking. 0 In India, business is often conducted in English because the nation has over a dozen major languages and hundreds of minor languages. So, don’t be sur— prised when your Indian partners are very fluent in English and expect you to show a high level of fluency, especially if you are a native English speaker. 0 In several African countries like Tunisia and Morocco, business tends to be con— ducted in French, even though the official language of the country is Arabic. Want to learn more about international readers? Go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.12 Differences in Organization The organization of a document often needs to be altered to suit an international au— dience. Organizational structures that Americans perceive to be “logical” or “common sense” can seem confusing and even rude in some cultures. 0 In Arab cultures, documents and meetings often start out with statements of appreciation and attempts to build common bonds among people. The American tendency to “get to the point” is often seen as rude. 0 Also in Arabic cultures, documents rely on repetition to make their points. To North Americans, this repetition might seem like the document is moving one step back for every two steps forward. To Arabs, American documents often seem incomplete because they lack this repetition. ' Asians often prefer to start out with contextual information about nonbusiness issues. For example, it is common for Japanese writers to start out letters by saying something about the weather. To some Asians, American documents seem abrupt, because Americans tend to bluntly highlight goals and objectives up front. 0 In India, the term thank you is considered a form of payment. So, if someone has done you a favor, you should not say thank you in the introduction or con- clusion of an e—mail or letter. Saying,“thank you” suggests you are paying that person for the favor. Differences in Style Beyond difficulties with translation, style is usually an important difference among cultures: 0 In China, overt attempts at persuasion are often seen as rude and undesirable. Instead, documents and meetings should be used to build relationships and present factual information. Strong relationships lead to good business, not the other way around. 0 Arabic style may seem overly ornamental to North American tastes, making Arabic documents and presentations seem colorful to non—Arabs. On the other hand, the American reliance on “plain language” can rub against the sensibili— ties of Arabs, who prefer a more ornate style in formal documents. 0 In Mexico and much of South America, an informal style often suggests a lack of respect for the project, the product, or the readers. Mexicans especially value formality in business settings, so the use of first names and contractions in business prose can be offensive. 0 In sub-Saharan Africa, readers prefer a document’s tone to stress a Win-win sit- uation.Your tone, therefore, should imply that both sides will benefit from the arrangement. 0 Some Native Americans prefer the sense that everyone had input on the docu- ment. Therefore, a direct writing or presentation style will meet resistance be- cause it will seem to represent the opinion of only one person. 0 In North America, women are more direct than women in other parts of the world, including Europe. This directness often works to their advantage in For information sources on other countries, go to www.ablongman.00m/johnsonweb2/3.13 Carol Leininger, Ph.D. COMMUNICATIONS MANAGER, F. HOFFMAN—LA ROCHE, SWISS HEADQUARTERS F. Hofi‘man-La Roche is a pharmaceutical company that works closely with a partner company, Chugai Pharmaceuticals, in Tokyo, Japan. What are some strategies for communicating with people from another culture? Physical distance may be the biggest hurdle in global communication. I believe that distance affects how people work together more than does language or culture. When people are working face to face, they tend to figure out issues by interacting with each other, even if they are not fluent in the same languages. There are awkward mo— ments, but that’s to be expected. Mostly, solid preparation is the key to working across distances and languages. Communication needs to be structured and simple.Your readers may be reading your text in their second— or third—best language, so make their job easier by writing as simply and clearly as you can. All the rules for good teclmical communication in the United States apply to inter- national communication—only more so. What helps second—language or non—US. English speakers? State your objectives and purpose clearly. Use language consistently (i.e., the same terms for the same things). Do not attempt humor until a relationship has been established. Rank issues by importance. Handle only one message per email or paragraph. Use headings and subheadings that convey a specific meaning. Minimize use of adjectives and adverbs. Minimize prepositional phrases. Highlight actions, deadlines, and dates. 0 Spell everything correctly (always check the spelling). Always be as polite as you can by your own cultural standards (e.g., formal lan— guage, politeness markers like“please” and “thank you,” use of full names in greeting and salutation). Even if your cultural View of what is “polite” is different from that of your audience, your intention to be polite will be recognized by international readers as courtesy and civility. other countries, because they are viewed as confident and forward thinking. However, as writers and speakers, women should not be too surprised when people of other cultures resist their directness. Take Note American women should just be themselves. You can be direct, because people from other cultures expect American women to be more assertive. Just keep in mind that some of the resistance from your readers or an audience might be due more to gender expectations than to your ideas. Want to learn more about Native American cultures? Go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.14 v Differences in Design Even the design of documents is important when you are working with international and cross-cultural readers: 0 Arabic and some Chinese scripts are read from right to left, unlike English, which is read from left to right (Figure 3.8). As a result, Arabic and some Chinese readers tend to scan pages and images differently than do Americans or Europeans. Different Ways of Scanning a Page Figure 3.8: Readers from other cultures may scan the design differently. The design needs American or'European Arabic’br Chinese to take their reader scanning a page reader scanning a page preferences into account. Some icons that Show hand gestures—like the OK sign, a pointing finger, or a peace sign with the back of the hand facing outward—can be highly offensive in some cultures. Imagine a document in which a hand with the middle finger extended is used to point at things.You get the picture. In many South American and Asian cultures, the use of the right hand is pre- ferred when handing items (e.g., business cards, documents, products) to people. Therefore, pictures or drawings in documents Should show people using their right hands to interact. In some Asian cultures a white flower or white dress can symbolize death. As a result, a photograph of white flowers or white dresses can signal a funeral or mourning. ' Europeans find that American texts include too many graphics and use too much white space. Americans, meanwhile, often find that the small margins in European texts make the documents look crowded and cramped. Graphs and charts that seem to have obvious meanings to Americans can be baffling and confusing to readers from other cultures. If your international document includes graphs and charts, you should seek out someone from the readers’ culture to help you determine whether your visuals will be understood. When giving presentations in some Native American cultures, hand gestures should be limited and eye contact should be minimized. Ironically, this advice is exactly the opposite of what most public speaking coaches suggest. For more about using graphics in other cultures, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.15 Listen and Learn: The Key to International and Cross-Cultural Communicatlon \Vith all these differences in content, organization, style, and design, how can you possibly write for international or cross—cultural readers? Here are four helpful strategies: LlS'l‘liN (;,\.Ri-i'r‘ifi,ii\' A good strategy is to listen carefully to your readers’ expecta— tions. Careful listening is a valued quality in all cultures, and you will learn a great amount by simply paying attention to what your readers expect the document to in— clude and how it should look. BIC POI .l'l‘Ii Politeness in one culture tends to translate well into other cultures. For example, words like please and thank you are universally seen as polite. Smiles and a friendly tone are almost always welcome. There are subtle differences in how these words and gestures are used in other cultures, but your readers will understand that you are trying to be polite. RiflSliiRCl l 'i‘lrlli ‘i‘,\R(}ii’l‘ (TH TYRE Use the Internet to do some research into your readers’ cultural expectations for technical documents. On the Internet or at your workplace, you might also find some model texts from the readers’ culture. Use them to help guide your decisions about content, organization, style, and design. Take Note International readers will usually be gratified that you took the time to learn their conventions. Be careful, though, not to rely on stereotypes or cliches (e.g., the cliché of mentioning cherry blossoms in a letter to a Japanese reader). TALK TO YOUR (:(ii..l,ii,\(it'lis You may also seek out coworkers or colleagues who are from the target culture or who have lived there.You can ask them about conven- tions that might make your document or presentation more effective. They can also help you avoid doing anything awkward or offensive. Overall, when you are communicating with international readers or people from different cultures, be observant and listen to what they tell you. Do some research into their expectations, and be ready to learn from your mistakes. To find websites that discuss politeness strategies, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/ 3.16 E m >< n1 fi m rn m ll 1,. “v5. “fl .a ill} Q; a: 0 You can use your computer as a reader analysis tool to better tailor your document’s content, organization, style, and design to the needs of its readers. 0 Early in the writing process, you should begin developing a profile of the types of people who may be interested in your document. 0 Your readers will include primary readers (action takers), secondary readers (advrsors), tertiary readers (evaluators), and gatekeepers (supervisors). 0 In your documents and presentations, you should anticipate various readers’ needs, values, and attitudes. 0 You should anticipate the document’s contexts of use, which include the physical, econonuc, political, and ethical factors that may influence a reader’s ideas. - The emergence of the Internet has heightened the importance of international and cross—cultural communicationYou need to adjust the content, organization, style, and deSIgn of your text to be sensitive to cross—cultural needs. Individual or Team Projects 1. Choose two websites that are designed for very different types of readers. Write a memo to your instructor in which you compare and contrast the websites, showing how they approach their readers differently. How do they use content, organiza— tion, style, and design to meet the needs, values, and attitudes of their readers? Some pairs of websites you might consider include websites for cars (chevro— let.com versus honda.com), magazines (time.com versus outsidemagcom), or com— puters (dell.com versus apple.com). Look for websites for products that are similar but pursue different kinds of customers. 2. Consider the advertisement in Figure 3.9 and“reverse-engineer” its reader analysis. Using a W riter—Centered Chart and a Reader Analysis Chart, identify the primary, secondary, and tertiary readers of the text. Then, make guesses about the needs, values, and attitudes of these readers. Write a report to your instructor in which you use your charts to discuss the readiers of this document. Then, show how the document anticipates these readers’ nee s. . For a document you are writing, conduct a thorough reader analysis. Start out by identifying the primary, secondary, tertiary, and gatekeeper readers. Then, identify these readers’ needs, values, and attitudes. And finally, identify the physical, eco— nomic, political, and ethical issues that may influence how your readers interpret your document. Give a presentation about your readers to your class. Discuss how various readers in various contexts will require you to adjust the content, organization, style, and design of your document. . Choose a country or culture that interests you. Then, find two texts written by people from that country or culture.Write a memo to your instructor in which you discuss any similarities or differences between the texts and your own expectations for texts. Pay close attention to differences in content, organization, style, and design of these texts. Figure 3.9: Who are the intended readers of this advertisement? What are their needs, values, and attitudes? Collaborative Project With a group of people from your class, create a website that explores the needs values, and attitudes of people from a different country or culture. The website does not need'to be complex. Rather, 0n the Internet, identify various websites that offer 1nformation'0n that country or culture. Then, organize those websites by content and create links to them. Specifically, pay attention to the ways in which this coun- try s p-hy31cal, economic, political, and ethical contexts shape the way its people live the1r lives. When you are finished with the website, give a presentation to your class in which your group discusses how this country or culture differs from your own. Answer the followmg question: If you were going to offer a product or service to the people of this country or culture, what considerations would you need to keep in mind? If you needed to write a proposal or a set of instructions to people from this country or cul- ture, how might you need to adjust it to fit their unique qualities? Installin a Medical We Incinerator Duane Jackson knew this decision was going to be difficult. As the assistant city engi— neer for Dover City, he was frequently asked to study construction proposals sent to the city council. He would then write a report with a recommendation. So, when the pro— posal for constructing a medical waste incinerator crossed his desk, he knew there was going to be trouble. Overall, the proposal fromValley Medical, Inc, looked solid. The incinerator would be within 3 miles of the two major hospitals and a biotech research facility. And, it would bring about 30 good jobs to the Blue Park neighborhood, an eco- nomically depressed part of town. The problem was that people in Blue Park were going to be skeptical. Duane grew up in a neighborhood like Blue Park, primarily African- American and lower middle class. He knew that hazardous industries often put their operations in these kinds of neighborhoods because the people did not have the financial resources or political clout to fight them. In the past, companies had taken advantage of these neighborhoods’ political weaknesses, leaving the area polluted and unhealthy. Powerful interests were weighing in on this issue. Dover City’s mayor wanted the in- cinerator badly because she wanted the economic boost the new business would pro— vide. Certainly, the executives at the hospitals and research laboratory were enthusiastic, because a nearby incinerator would help them cut costs. The city councilor who repre— sented Blue Park wanted the jobs, but not at the expense of his constituents’ health. Environmental groups, health advocates, and neighborhood associations were cautious about the incinerator. Analyzing the Readers After a few weeks of intense study, Duane’s research convinced him that the incinera- tor was not a health hazard to the people of Blue Park. Similar incinerators built by Valley Medical had spotless records. Emissions would be minimal because advanced “scrubbers” would remove almost all the particles left over after incineration. The scrub— bers were very advanced, almost completely removing the harmful pollutants such as dioxin and mercury. Also, the company had a good plan for ensuring that medical waste would not sit around in trucks or containers, waiting to be burned. The waste would be immediately incinerated on arrival. For more information about waste incinerators, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/3.17 Duane’s Writer-:Ceritered Chart Gatekeepers City Engineer (Duane’s hoss) Tertiary State Board NI‘N‘ " or Health ‘ J: Secondary Health ) . Reporters Bu"? { 3‘“ Industry .6 l a _ Ne’bhbwf‘lom lmvn‘onmcn’ml Assocxatlon Groups may” Primary City Lawyers Chamber of Commerce City Council Valley Hospitals Medical Duane decided to write a report to the city council that recommended the incinera— tor be built. That decision was the easy part. Now he needed to write a report that would convince the skeptics. After identifying the subject and purpose of the report, Duane decided to do a thor- ough analysis of his readers and the report’s contexts of use. He began with aWriter— Centered Chart (Figure 3.10). He then used a Reader Analysis Chart to identify the various readers’ needs, values, and attitudes (Figure 311). Finally, Duane filled out a Context Analysis Chart to identify the physical, economic, political, and ethical issues involved (Figure 3.12). (continued) Figure 3.10: Duane’s Writer- Centered Chart showed how many readers his report would have. Duane’s Reader Analysis Chart Primary - City Council Secondary - Valley Medical - Chamber of Commerce - Mayor - Neighborhood Association - Environmentalists - City Lawyers - Hospitals Tertiary - Reporters - State Board of Health ' NAACP r Health industry Gatekeepers - City Engineer Reliable information Environmental impact data Clear recommendation Impartial commentary Impartial commentary Specific facts about emissions Cultural and social considerations Valley Medical wants profits Impartial decision Reassurance that race or poverty are not factors Basic facts about incinerator Reliable information Clear decision based on reliable data Citizen safety Economic development Fairness Maintaining character of Blue Park Economic development Environmental safety Safe disposal of waste Fairness and honesty Lack of bias Protection of people with little political power Minimal trouble with mayor and council Low profile. Stay out of politics Honesty Optimistic Cautious Mayor and hospitals are positive and hopeful Neighborhood association and environmental groups are skeptical, perhaps resistant Valley Medical hopeful Skeptical Open-minded Impartial to project Concerned that report may cause tensions Figure 3.11: Duane filled in a Reader Analysis Chart, noting everything he knew about the various readers of his report. He noticed that most readers wanted impartial and reliable information. Some readers were positive; others were skeptical. Duane’s Context Anaiysis Chart Physical Economic Political Ethical Context Context Context Context Re-election is Exploiting poor always an issue neighborhood? Primary initially at their Looking to Readers office improve city Further in city economics council meeting ~ City Council Mayor wants it Racial issues? BP city council Environmental would like it issues Voters are wary City liable if Neighborhood mistake? Home values in and Environmental neighborhood environmental impact decline? groups draw Good for attention Readers‘ City Hall company Engineers' - Dover City Office City website The jobs are a financial plus. Infringement of people’s rights? hospitals Racial politics? Legal issues Pressure on Public relations Economic mayor Don’t want to growth Shows Dover seem City is positive exploitative about this kind of business Reports on Job creation Internet about project Readers’ Industry ~ City government What Should Duzuic Do Now? On the facts alone, Duane was convinced that the incinerator would be well placed in the Blue Park neighborhood. But his reader analysis charts showed that facts alone were not going to win over his primary audience, the members of the city council. They would have numerous other economic, political, and ethical issues to consider as well as the facts. In many ways, these factors were more important than the empirical evidence for the incinerator. Indeed, one important thing Duane noticed was that the city council members, though the “action takers,” were heavily influenced by the secondary readers. These secondary readers, the “advisers,” would play a large role in the council’s decision. How can Duane adjust the content, organization, style, and design to better write his report? If you were Duane’s readers, what kinds of information would you expect in this kind of report? Figure 3.12: Duane's Context Analysis Chart revealed some interesting tensions between the economics and politics of the decision on the incinerator. ...
View Full Document

Page1 / 15

03 - r e Procastinatr Elizabeth Brown is the director of...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 15. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online