07 - Researching and Managing Information How to define...

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Unformatted text preview: Researching and Managing Information How to define your research subject using logical mapping to define its boundaries. How to formulate a research question or hypothesis that will guide your research. To develop a research methodology and revise it as needed. Methods for triangulating information to ensure reliability. To use the many available electronic research tools. To find electronic, print, and empirical sources for your research. How to take accurate notes and use your notes appropriately in paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting. How to appraise the information you gather for reliability and bias while avoiding plagiarism. Computers and computer networks have made research both easier and more challenging. Not long ago, finding enough information was the hard part of doing research. Today, with access to the Internet, you will find seemingly endless amounts of information available on any given topic. If you run a search on Google.com, Ask.c0m, or AskJeeves.com, thousands of webpages might refer to your subject. Even a traditional search at your library will unearth more information than you could ever collect. Information glut: When there is more informa- tion than time available to col- lect, interpret, and synthesize that information. The problem caused by this overwhehning universe of facts, data, and opinions is called an information glut. An information glut exists when there is more information than time available to collect, interpret, and synthesize that information. What should you do about this overwhelming access to information? You should View “research” as a form of information management. Research is now a process of shaping the flow of information, so you can locate and utilize the information you need. As an information manager, you need to learn how to evaluate, prioritize, inter- pret, and store that information so you can use it effectively. Of course, in addition to collecting existing information, primary research (empiri— cal research) is important in the technical workplace. Primary research involves observing and/or directly experiencing the subject of your study. By conducting ex- periments, doing field studies, using surveys, and following other empirical methods, For websites that discuss the information glut, :;<::-..;-=a i {dillilfiii-lll'l go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/7.1 " Empirical research is a critical part of working in technical disciplines. you can make your own observations and collect your mm data. The most effective research usually blends these kinds of empirical observations With the exrstlng infor— ti a aflable through computer networks and libraries. 5. Appraise collected information to determine reliability. ma on v 4. Triangulate electronic, print, and empirical sources of information. A good research process begins by clearly defining the research subject. Then, it . . 1 , follows a research methodology in which a variety of sources are located and ap- l Beginning Your Reseai ch ‘ praised for reliability (Figure 7.1). In technical fields, researchers typically use a combination of primary and secondary ' full understanding of a particular subject. ' 0 j sources to gain a o i 1 Primary sources—Information collected from observations, experiments, DCfiIflflg Y0u1 Reseal ch SubJect surveys, interviews, ethnographies, testing Your first task is to define your research subject as clearly as possible.You should Secondaly SOUJ‘CPS—InfOHIlatiOD dl‘aWD from academic journals; magaline begin by identifying what you already know about the subject and highlighting areas ‘ articles books websites CD—ROMS and reference materials where you need to do more research. l j , y i - A reliable way to start is to first develop a logical map of your research subject ‘ MOSt researChers begin their reseal‘Ch by fiISt locatmg the-secondary, Sillir-m: (Figure 7.2). To create a logical map, write your subject in the middle of your screen able on thejI SUbjeCt' once they have a thOF-Ou-gh unders-tandmg Of then S Jec ’ ey or a piece of paper. Then, around that subject, begin noting everything You already use primary research to expand on these dexrstlng mategalid f HOW a process Similar know or believe about it. As you find relationships among these ideas, you can draw l Your research into primary and secon ary sources 8 ou o _ to the following: 1. Define the I‘eseal‘Ch SUblECt Take Note As you make your logical map, you will notice that some ideas will lead to t_ d h othesis other, unexpected ideas—some seemingly unrelated to your subject. When this happens, 2. FOI'IDUIate a TesealCh (Tues 1011 an yp ‘ just keep writing them down. Don’t stop. These unexpected ideas are evidence that you are thinkin creativel b ta in into our visual-s atial abilities. You ma end u crossin out i 3. Develop a research methodology. g Y V DD g y p y p g many of these ideas, but some may offer you new insights into the subject. A Research Process - I u I - Figure 7.1: To ensure the Using Mapping to Find the Boundaries of a Subject ' ur research sub'ect. collection of reliable r - I M Dame yo J information, it helps to follow a E'ggarfngi'cén ' h rocess. . predictable researc p Nevada help you generate ideas about your subject. It can Formulate a research question and hypothesis. Develop a research methodology. also show you r where you need ‘ to do research. l Triangulate electronic, print, and empirical sources of information. nuclear testing Nuclear waste in the west general storage uses sites Idaho Falls (ID) Rocky Flats (C0) Yucca generation Mountain (NV) lllitxliliitctihii‘: Greg Wilson RESEARCHER, SYSTEMS ETHNOGRAPHY AND QUALITATIVE MODELING TEAM AT 1 LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY Los Alamos National Laboratory is a US. government research center in Los AlamoS, New Mexico. Do researchers in the technical workplace real I y use logical mapping? Mapping is a regular part of our research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The mission of LANL is to address big science problems related to the U.S. nuclear stockpile, terrorism and weapons of mass destruction, defense, energy, envi— ronment, and infrastructure. These types of problems involve complex technical sys— tems, political and social concerns, and interdisciplinary teams of experts. _ We use mapping methods to create representations that help the teams of experts understand the important elements of a problem and how they relate to each other. I i do textual research, interviewing, and ethnographies to identify the ways that differ— : ent experts understand the problem. Then, I create maps so the experts can under— stand each other’s perspectives and communicate about how to solve the problem. , , . . L a : For example, if you have a biologist, epidemiologist, physician, emergency response planner, police chief, and political decision maker all trying to plan how a major city should respond in the event of a bioterrorist attack, each of them understands the problem in a different way. They talk about the problem in different ways, making efficient communication and problem solving difficult. Using mapping as a centerpiece of research, I work with teams like this to build a common graphical representation of the problem. This representation also serves as a framework for identifying what data and information exist at each node in the graph, so that all relevant information is available to the team. Usually, a simple picture is the best way to begin to understand a complex problem. i i i l l i l ,l ' l ‘ l i ii . 10 116.11..) narrow yUur' bulJJCL'L, yuu llccu LU Luuuac air LUIS"; uu UIC ouu bvl, 1s a spec1fic direction that your research will follow. For example “nuclear wasteful; be too large a’subject, but “the hazards of transporting nuclear waste in the western 3 United States nught be a good angle for your research. Likewise, research on raptors is probably too large a subject, but“the restoration of bald eagles along the MISSISSIppI Rlver” might be a manageable project. General Subject (too broad) Angled Research Area (narrowed) Nuclear waste Transportation of nuclear waste in western states Bald eagles on the Mississippi Effects of secondhand smoke Water usage on the TTU Campus Domestic abuse in rural areas Eagles Lung cancer Water usage Violence By C 8mg g ,§ u hel yO 0W y() I 1100 S all EU 16 0 W p u Sel nalT u IeSeaJ(,h Slll)]e( llll;() a Formulating a Research Question or Hypothesis ()llCe 501] have Hallowed you ill) eCl 50 i)” (l e] lOIIIlulaLB a lesefllch (IUESUOU 1 S , u S l. 01 1),}(116515 h Mapping takes advantage of your ability to think visually and spatially about an issue. It will help you define the boundaries of your research subject and also help you focus your research. Mapping is widely used in technical disciplines, and it is gaining popularity in highly scientific and technical research (see the AtWork box above).You might find it strange to begin your research by drawing circles and lines, but mapping will reveal relationships that you would not otherwise discover. It is a great way to tap into your creativity through your visual abilities. Narrowing Your Research Subject After defining your subject, you also need to look for ways to narrow and focus your research. Often, when people start the research process, they begin with a very broad subject (e.g., nuclear waste, raptors, lung cancer).Y0ur logical map and a brief search on the Internet will soon show you that these kinds of subjects are too large for you to handle in the time available. Want to learn more about being creative? Go to > 7 ,3, .. . ' ,3. www.ablongman.com/johnsonweh2/7.2 mm min”: . L ‘ Want to see other workplaces that use " 7‘ " mapping? Go to “W” "‘ “"2 ‘ l" "l" 7 l 7 www.ablongman.com/johnsonwebZ/ 7.3 Research ques- tion or hypothe- sis: A question or statement that is tenta- tively used to guide empirical or analytical research. 13 research question or hypothesis is a question or statement that is tentatively use to gurde empuical 0r analytlcal researchYour research question or hypothesis does not need to he very specific whe ' . n you begm your research. It sim 1 give your research a direction to follow. p y needs to Try to devise a research question that is as specific as possible: Why do crows like to gather on our campus during the winter? What are the effects of violent television on boys between the ages of 10 and 16? Is solar power a viable energy source for South Dakota? , ‘ . . _ Xoui hypotheSIS Is your best guess about an answer to your research question: Hypothesis: The campus is the best source of available food in the wintertime, because students leave food around. Crows naturally congregate because of the food. Hypothesis: Boys between the ages of 10 and 16 model what they see on violent television causrng them to be more Violent than boys who do not watch violent television. I Hyiolh-ESISZ Solar power is a viable energy source in summer, but cloudiness in the winter ma es It less economical than other forms of renewable energy. h As you move-forward with your research, you will probably need to refine or s arpen your origlnal research question or hypothesis. For now, though, ask the Having trouble refining your hypothesis? Go to in’nirriiliai . 3:Zzisazrimiiifsiir rm; {I}: l:t’.lg1liiliili'llir question that you would most like to answer. Then, to form your hypothesis, answer this question to the best of your knowledge.Your hypothesis should be your best guess for the moment. Developing a Research Methodology With a research question or hypothesis formed, you are ready'to start developing I your research methodology. A methodology is a plan that describes how you are gomg to collect information, answer your research question, and test your hypothesrs. A research methodology is a step-by-step pro- cedure that you will use to study your subject. A research methodology is a step—by—step procedure that you will use to study your subject. As you and your research team consider how to study your subject, begin thinking about all the different ways you can collect information. Mapping Out a Methodology Logical mapping can help. Put the purpose of your research in the middle of your screen or a piece of paper. Ask, “How are we going to achieve thls purpose? Then, answer this question by formulating the two to five major steps you Will need to take Mapping Out a Methodology US. Nuclear Regulatory interview experts anti- nuclear Commission How? websites How? How? gather opinions How? pro- nuclear websites search internet survey How? How? public Determine whether nuclear waste transportation is safe gather info on Yucca Study Mtn. transportation 9 methods How" How? How? How? swdy locate magazines experience of print sources WIPP How? How? How? How? Nat. talk local Lab. PR to locals newspapers materials Need help developing a methodology? Go to ' _ www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/ 7.5 Figure 7.3: Logical mapping can help you sketch out a methodology. Keep asking the How? question as you consider the steps needed to complete your project. in your research. Each of these major steps can then be broken down into minor steps (Figure 7.3). Using the map in Figure 7.3, for example, a team of researchers might devise the following methodology for studying their research question: Methodology for Researching Nuclear Waste Transportation: - Collect information off the Internet from sources for and against nuclear waste storage and transportation. Track down news stories in the print media and collect any journal articles available on nuclear waste transportation. - Interview experts and survey members of the general public. - Study the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico to see if transportation to the site has been a problem. Note that these researchers are planning to collect information from a range of electronic, print, and empirical sources. DcscribingYour hilethodology After mapping out your methodology, begin describing your methodology in outline form (Figure 7.4). Outlining a Research Methodology Research Questions Figure 7.4: The major and minor steps in the research methodology should result in specific kinds of findings. At the end of the methodology, _ I leave time for analyzing your Expected Findings findings. Major Step 1 Minor Step Minor Step Minor Step Major Step Minor Step Minor Step Minor Step Expected Findings Major Step 3 Minor Step Minor Step Minor Step Expected Findings Analysis of Findings I } \ Sometimes, as shown in Figure 7.4, it is also helpful to identify the kinds of infor— Solid research draws from three kinds of information: mation you expect to find in each step. By clearly stating your expected findings Will kDOW if your reseaICh methodology ' Electronic sources: Websites, CD~ROMs, listservs, television and radio videos before you start collecting information, you podcasts, blogs l‘ is working the way you expected. At the end of your methodology, add a step called “Analysis of Findings.” If you collected numbers, you will need to do some statistical analysis. If you conducted in— terviews or tracked down information on the Internet, you will need to spend some ‘ time checking and verifying your sources. . . u . . Print sources. Books, journals, magazuies and newspapers, government publi— cations, reference materials, microform/microfiche Empirical sources. Experiments, surveys, interViews, field observations, eth- nographies, case studies By drawing information from all three kinds of sources, you will be able to verify ‘ Using and Revisingl‘oi‘ir fiieiliodology l . . th ' . ‘ A good methodology is like a treasure map. You and your rese 6 facts you find- i , a guide to uncover answers to questions that intrigue you. ‘ Almost certainly, you will deviate from your methodology while doing your re- ‘ “ search. Sometimes you will find information that takes you down an unexpected l l “ path. Sometimes information you expected to find is not available. In other cases, experiments and surveys return unexpected findings. ‘ When you deviate from your methodology, note these changes in direction. A i change in the methodology is not a failure. It is simply a recognition that research is l not formulaic and can be unpredictable. Research is a process of discovery. Sometimes i the most important discoveries are made when we deviate from the plan. arch team can use it as 0 If you find similar facts in all three kinds of sources, you can be reasonably confident that the information is reliable. 0 If you find the information in two of three kinds of sources, the information is pfrtibably still reliable, though you should be less confident. 0 , owever, you find the information in only one kind of source it ' h u , t reliable and needs further confirmation. Hug net be i Something to remember is that “truth” and “facts” are more slippery than we wanf‘it to asrrtut. A source may claim it is providing you the truth, but until you can con rm a source’s facts through triangulation rou should al claims skeptically. , 3 ways treat any .Also keep in mind that there are always two sides to every issue. So, avoid re- stricting your research to only one side. If you look only for sources that confirm what you already believe, you will probably not gain a deeper understanding of the subject. After all, even when you absolutely disagree with someone else, his or her argument may give you additional insi ht into the issu ' Open mind g c you are researching. Keep an I l l . . o l Triangulatmg Materials ‘ f To ensure that your methodology is reliable, you should draw information from a variety of sources. Specifically, you should always try to triangulate your materials lectronic, print, and empirical sources (Figure 7.5). by collecting information from c Triangulation allows you to compare and contrast sources, thereby helping you de- ormation is not. Plus, triangula— terrnine which information is reliable and which inf tion gives your readers confidence in your research, because you will have collected information from a variety of sources. Using Electronic Sources Because electronic sources are so convenient, a good place to start collecting informa- tion is through your computer. Websites—Websites are accessible through browsers like Firefox m Netscape, Explorer, or Safari. When using search engines like ’ To improve your MetaCrawler.com, Google.com,Yahoo.com, and Ask.com, among many use Of Seamh others, you can run keyword searches to find information on your subject 8:133:33? O to (Figures 7.6 and 7.7). page 47 _CD-ROMs—A compact disc (CD-ROM) can hold a library worth of text and images. Often available at your local or campus library, CD-ROMS are usu- ally searchable through keywords or subjects. Encyclopedias and databases are also available on CD-ROM. m .Listservstistservs are ongoing e-mail discussions, usually among special— For help finding istlsflin a field. Once you find a listserv on your subject, you can usually sub- 3 “Stserv 0” sc ' e to the discussion. The ex erts o ' r ' your SUbject' g0 p n the listsen Will often answer your to Chapter 13’ questions. page 351. The Research Triangle Figure 7.5: in any research project, try to draw information from electronic, print, and empirical sources. Electronic Sources Print Sources Empirical Sources For links to Internet search engines, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/7.7 ‘li lt'rlilfilllialilifié maritime: Tools for helping you do research electronically are available at www.ablongman/johnsonweb2/7.6 7:: Web Search Home Page - Metat‘rnwler- Netscape 7 000 G c) 0 «so (a, lath" 43 MM 1;} Norm Q Rwlo 5 mm»: 0.59"th ammo. ’x} won." 'yConlocl Ramon \Yollov Pm: Q'Dwolm BC Locate people or businesses in the Yellow or White pages of the site. .\ meta ° > “mun rm uncut Hommo Keywords go here. lioxynlomllliu [’1er \ul Ioolhmj h Popup Blocker" 3.,- to lum Mel-:crawlm nukes scalclnnu , .n N, etaS » mum of the We!) (mslcr py F mlumlngllmlm nursing“ Exerwmdq Milmnadlhuwlalx Harchlnglu? iv llursnlm . cltl‘incs: oglg-an¢°.quVl§\a VENIURlD SEARCNES Asmara»): - About‘ Looksnnll « , ‘ ,, . 0milua~FlndWhal . v- .3 . . , ., {infoqisirfw i Mwhyk‘ulln-k 1 ram va mm The Advanced Search can help you focus your search. OTHER RESOURCES - t.‘.».-h(_rs.-..-.:'.'2l: :- u #_¥w< ‘ H " ‘ ‘ “ Nevyw no block . l . -. thou mnwlng ads. . .u. Most search engines include subject areas for common interests. :-,:.-. t .7 luau riimlmu l damn. limo mun-van mime unimviey Fella} ' mm. .lgv r. In,» ' j Momuumm Source: metacrawler, http://www.metacrawlercom. Television and radio—You can locate television and radio documentaries or news programs that address your subject. In some cases, copies of these ma— terials will be available at your library. Podcasts—lncreasingly, information is being put on websites as podcasts. Podcasts can be played on your computer or an MP3 player (not only on an iPod). They often sound like radio broadcasts.Video podcasts are also becoming more popular. Videos—Increasingly, documentaries and training Videos are available on digital videodiscs (DVDs) or videotapes (VHS).Your library or even video rental stores may have these kinds of materials available. Blogs—Blogs are Internet sites Where a commentator or group of commen— tators often “publish” raw information, opinions, and hearsay. Blogs can be a good source for keeping up with the cutting edge of a research area. Ta Not Electronic information, especially materials found on the lnternet, can be short lived. So, if you find something useful, take careful notes. Make sure you write down the place where you found the information and the date on which you found it. For links to solid electronic sources of information, go to www.ahlongman.com/johnsonwebZ/ 7.8 "T Figure 7.8: MetaCrawler is one of the more useful Internet search engines. By typing in some keywords, you can locate limitless amounts of information. Here, you can be more exact about the terms you want searched. Boolean terms (and, or, not) can be used to sharpen the search considerably. Advanced Search Metatrawler - Netscape E ‘ QC 0 Q Q Q htlprllvwmetacravlereom/lnfomtwlmrcnlsdvencel do “Li, (a Hall a AIM ’4: Home 5} Radio E] Netscape QSearch Bookmarks $Webmll “econiact ‘9 People Quilts/Pm ”‘ meta. r > HAI<>¢I~IHAICMl\:l\15'€\ Advanced Search Use the following options to do a search with advanced capabilities. Please note: These settings will be a ' ‘ ' pplred to this search only. You Will have to set our ref ' zour next search. To set default characteristics for all future searches, use the i": alwyen - Sigi'dfie:e:3ltinvsii{onl e returned by partners who are compatible with the features you select. 7 (7 A, y (mill: almirli Search Optlons Qualify Your Search You can use these fields to create a ver ' y specific search. You can look for an phrase, or exclude pages containing certain words. exau All of these words The exact phrase Any of these words None of these words Use Boolean Terms Use words and. or, andnot to search for your keyword(s) in a more advanced manner. luminaer nu mu. lz. ‘. n. m... Source: metacrawler, http://www.metacrawler.com/info.metac/search/advance.html. Using Print Sources With easy access to information through the Internet, you may be tempted to forego usmg the print sources available at your library. Researchers who neglect print sources are making a serious mistake. I Printed documents are still the most abundant and reliable sources of informa- tion. In the rush to use electronic sources, many people have forgotten that their nearby library is loaded With books and periodicals on almost any subject. These printsources can usually be located by using your computer to access the library’s webSIte (Figure 7.8). Want to knowimoreabout biogsaeo- to . WWW-fib'ng-anscOM/iqhnsonweb2/7.9., 4 :, Figure 7.7: The Advanced Search area of an Internet search engine can help you refine your search to locate the exact information you are looking for. Journals—Using a periodical index at your library, you can search for jour- _ nal articles on your subject. Journal articles are usually written by profes— 5‘ Fégurmnlji :ggra sors and scientists in a research field, so the articles can be rather detailed _ N 4 mm Immmnm; v m vilergsli’te my and hard to understand. Nevertheless, these articles offer some of the most 1 “ ‘ ' ‘1’ 4 finding print exact research on any subject. Periodical indexes for journals are usually ‘ sources. This is available online at your library’s website, or they will be available as printed A Library’s Search Engine University of Minnesota Libraries l ['9 no the UnivetrSity 0; books in your library’s reference area. Minneso a’s pa 9 for finding a Magazines and newspapers—You can also search for magazine and news— , LIBRARIES kinds of Literature or a newspaper index. The Readers’ Guide and newspaper indexes l l variety of different paper articles on your subject by using the Readers’ Guide to Periodical l _ , g, . >9:.,»;; I in: ' I ur . . . . , . . . I Hrvsrmasncmrsrw H, . . i | v I t i I ‘ l mater'als Yo are likely available online at your library s webSite or in print form. Recent fliiiiwmu'flimelfl i l campus has I f . ‘ i h b d ‘ w I if i H ‘l W] W“ ; I ,,i,,,,-L.,,;. r ; trained librarians e itions o magazmes OI newspapers mig t e store at your raiy. er _ . ical W I W ,,,.,,,,_,_r. . .. , . I I ‘ ‘ i Fmd penod NEVMWWEUERARES ; manic.“ who are there to magazmes and newspapers have usually been stored on microform or nadir Ikevwoid 'l iNdeXes here" help YOU- Don't microfiche. be afraid to ask. Subnm l l 1 Find books i i here. Basra Seaicnl karanred Search | Your Accemj Take Note An important difference between articles in journals and articles in maga- l zines and newspapers is who wrote them. Journal articles tend to be written by Subject ‘ Find artides Matter Experts (SMEs) in the field (scientists, professors, medical researchers, engineers). hera Magazine and newspaper articles tend to be written byjournalists who are reporting on the activities of these experts. Indexes and Databases A-Z 4:,r. , Government publications—The US. government produces a surprising 1 amount of useful books, reports, maps, and other documents.You can find j these documents through your library or through government websites. A 1 good place to start is The Catalog of US. Government Publications ‘ I "’I I (www.gpoaccess.gov/cgp), which offers a searchable listing of government on nohi _; r . . Dcnec ' ‘ publications and reports. source: The University Of Minnesota, http://WWW-"b-“mn'edu' Reference materials—Libraries contain many reference tools like almanacs, l encyclopedias, handbooks, and directories. These reference materials can help you track down facts, data, and people. Increasingly, these materials can also be found online in searchable formats. iVIicroforin/microfiche—Libraries will often store copies of print materials T k Note Print sources of information are usually considered more reliable than on mici‘oform or microfiche. Microform and microfiche are‘rruniature trans- ‘ ' sources but that is not always true. Authors and publishers of books, maga- parenmes that can be read on pTOJECtOIS avaflable at your hbrary 1 eec romc ’ ' ' ' M reover print ‘ ‘ ' d Inaccurate, or even deceptive. o , Zines, and newspapers can still be biase , b d t d or obsolete In all though the print sources you find at your You will usually find that magazines and newspapers over a yeaI 01d have been materials can ecome a e . , , ‘ _ _ hosen and examined by professional transferred to microform or microfiche to save space in the library. Also, delicate l library are usually reliable because they haVe been 0 and older texts are available in this format to reduce the handling of the original librarians. documents. , ‘ Here are a few of the many kinds of print materials that you can use: Of course, finding print sources can be more work than finding electronic 1 , , . t that allow sources—at least, it requires a few more steps. However, the search for these materi— —Al t all libraries have electronic cataloging sys ems _ _ I . ’ I . Books T1103 I _ d k ords to search for books on als is not difficult, because library webSites offer useful search engines. The payoff is ‘ you to use authOl‘ name: SUbJeCti tlfle’ an eyw . 1 1 t the worth the effort, because print sources can be more reliable and stable than elec- i have located a book on your subiect, 00 i a i your subject. Once you i l 1 tronic sources. books shelved around it to find other useful materia s. For The Catalog of U.S. Government Publications, For 860885 to online news and legal and go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/7.11 business information, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/7.10 Using Empirical Sources You should also generate your own data and observations to support your research. Empirical studies can be quantitative or qualitative, depending on the kinds of infor- mation you are looking for. Quantitative research allows you to generate data that you can analyze statistically to find trends. Qualitative research allows you to observe patterns of behavior that cannot be readily boiled down mto numbers. Experiments—Each research field has its own experimental procedures. A controlled experiment allows you to test a hypothesis by generating data. From that data, you can confirm or dispute the hypothesis. Experiments should be repeatable, meaning their results can be replicated by another experimenter. Field observations—Researchers often carry field notebooks to record _ their observations of their research subjects. For example, an ornithologist might regularly note the birds she observes in her hikes around a lake.- Her notebook would include her descriptions of birds and their act1v1t1es. Doing Empirical Research Empirical research requires you to observe your subject directly. Interviews—You can ask experts to answer questions about your subject. On almost any given college campus, experts are available on just about any subjectYour well—crafted questions can draw out very useful information and quotes. Surveys—You can ask a group of people to answer questions about your sub- ject. Their answers can then be scored and analyzed for trends. Survey ques— tions can be closed—ended or open—ended. Closed—ended questions ask respondents to choose among preselected answers. Open—ended questions allow respondents to write down their Views in their own words. Figure 7.9 shows pages from a survey with both closed—ended and open—ended questions. Ethnographies—An ethnography is a systematic recording of your observa- tions of a defined group or culture. Anthropologists use ethnographies to identify social or cultural trends and norms. Case studies—Case studies typically offer in—depth observations of specific people or situations. For example, a case study might describe how a patient reacted to a new treatment regimen that manages diabetes. When conducting empirical research, you should follow the scientific method (Figure 7.10). The concept of a scientific method was first conceived by Francis Bacon, a seventeenth—century English philosopher. Later in the seventeenth century, the London Royal Society, a club of scientists, gave the scientific method the form we recognize now. The Scientific Method: 1. Observe and describe a phenomenon. 2. Formulate a hypothesis or theory that explains the phenomenon. 3. Use the hypothesis or theory to make predictions. 4. Use observations and experiments to generate results that confirm or deny your predictions. 5. Modify the hypothesis or theory to account for your results. 6. Repeat steps 3 through 5 until results match your hypothesis or theory OR you abandon the hypothesis or theory. Triangulating Research Solid research draws from three kinds of information: 0 Electronic sources—Internet, CD-ROMs, iistservs, television and radio, videos, blogs 0 Print sources—books, journals, magazines and newspapers, government publications, reference materials, microform/microfiche ‘ Empirical sources—experiments, surveys, interviews, field observations, ethnographies, case studies EDNV1D V 1V For more information on conduoting qualitative . empirical studieS, go to v 7 _ www.ablongman.com/johnsonyvebZ/ 7:13 _ : _, To learn more about the Scientific methOd,_go to. www.ablongman.coni/johnsonweb2[7.14 ' ~ ' Figure 7.9: A Introduction survey is a good Figure 7 9- “ i : explains how Campus Survey 75 way to generate (C t. ‘ ‘1 "‘ data for our on mued) ‘ ‘1 i i to complete Campus Perception Survey researchy In this Th f n _ . Campus Survey 78 ‘ ‘ i sun/e , I - e o owrng are some beliefs that may be held about the role of women and ' ' ' - ‘h l e y The following questions are about how safe you feel or don't feel on campus. For each situation please tell us if you feel: example, both or wrong answers- (Please circle the response that best describesnjgulpdggizlgnsfomew‘ There are no "gm il l. K a very safe, reasonably sale, neither safe nor unsafe, somewhat unsafe, very unsafe. or if this situation does not apply to l d d d d S" ' I you. (Please circle the number that best represents your answer or NA if the situation does not apply to you.) C 036 'en e an A , D'sznfE: STEM“ WWW ‘ Openended man s got to show the woman who's boss right from the start. 19 2 9:9 4 “gee ' How safe do ou feel... ' Y Very Somnm Numeral” “5:70,”, my questions are Women are usually sweet until they've caught a man. but then they let their true selfshow 1 2 3 4 5 l “ Unsaie Unsala Nor Unu s a a a a . I l l walkin al ' ‘ h 7 1 2 3 4 5 NA being used to _ _ _ ’ ‘ ‘ ‘ 9 one on campus dunng dayirgm ours_ _ ' In a dating relationshi a woman I l i waiting alone on campus for public transportation during daylight hours? 1 2 3 4 5 NA 50||C|t l5J '5 argely out to take advantage ofa man. 1 2 3 4 5 ‘ 3} walking alone in parking lots or garages on campus during daylight hours? 1 2 3 4 5 NA information. Men are out for only one thing. ‘l r 1 walking alone on campus after dark? 1 2 3 4 5 NA The survey 1 2 3 4 5 i waiting alone on campus for public transportation after dark? 1 2 3 4 5 NA " P A lot of women seem to get pleasure from putting a man down. 1 2 walking alone in parking lots or garages on campus after dark? 1 2 3 4 5 NA ll 70.: 3 4 5 ' ll working in the library stacks late at night? 1 2 3 4 5 NA p =. A W . a. .r A woman who goes to the home or apartment 01a ma t ‘ ’ ' ' while alone in classrooms? 1 2 3 4 5 NA 0 '( Lainenfs E0 is Willing to have sex, n on helrfirs‘ dale lmphes mat She Student Activity Center during the day? 1 2 3 4 5 NA measure the A f I 1 2 3 4 5 ‘ ' ' 7 1 2 3 4 5 NA , . r _ ny ema e can et ra ed. Student Actiwty Center at night pa; “Cipdni ’5 g p 1 2 3 4 5 1 I I I reaction to Any healthy woman can successfully resist a rapist if she really wants to. 1 2 3 4 Are there any specific areas on campus where you do not feel safe? Please specify which areas. which campus. and _‘ _ “.5. 5 when; for example, evenings only or anytime. S“99"th Many wqmen have 3" “'1°°"§Ci°US MS“ to be lape‘ir alid may men ' \I\ Situations or unconsciously set up a situation In which they are likely to be attacked, 1 2 3 4 5 ‘ ' u ~ : V . . I ‘ .3 These _ ape" :entkld. UllllitOliS. If a woman gets drunk at a party and has intercourse with a man she'sjust met there she ‘ Do you have any special needs related to safety on campus? quegijiong gwe 5'10"” be 00n51d9fed “fair game” to other males at the party who also want to have sex l clased.ended y ‘ ‘ I, r with her whether she wants to or not. l uestions parliaments clli 1 2 3 4 5 qreu to i ‘ wan 0 go ac at the man th 7 i y . elaborate on ey amuse _i numerical Have you ever used services related to A , l ' theii answeis. i safety Issues, sexual harassmem’ or What percentage of reported rapes would you guess were merely invented by women data' sexual assault that are provided How satisfied were you with help from this source? who discovered they were pregnant and wanted to protect their own reputation? 0/ - o l ‘ on campus by the following? Neither l l J l i Very Somewhat Satisfied Nor Somewhat Very D. Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Satisfied Id you attend any type of sludent orientation condu ‘ - - . . Campus Police YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 Summer 2000 or at the beginning of this term? (Pleggeedcliarlctlemlzslsny of Lou'svme dunng Women's Center YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 y 3’5"“)- YESNO Campus ministry YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 If your answer was ‘No, l i ‘ ‘ ~ - Campus counseling (Belknap) YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 d d nm attend onemat'un ' please Conlmue 0" “a” Pager V Student Health Services (Belknap) YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 At the ode” - . . _ _ i Campus counseling-(Health Science) YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 issues did yfgiggcégyegtizqgsgé much information about Violence against women None Some A Lot ‘ 1 Student Health Sewioes (Health Science) YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 8 your answer). 1 2 3 4 5 l Psychological Services Ctr(Psycho!ogy Clinic) YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 ‘i Affirmative Action Office YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 1 Security escort services after dark YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 ‘ Residence Hall staff YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 1 Office of Student Lite YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 , Disability Resource Center YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 Access Center YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 Faculty member YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 Other YES NO 1 2 3 4 5 | (Please specify.) i i 1 Source: Bledsoe & Sar, i'i'i'i2iri:tillrziiiii-‘ llili’lli’iiiaiii-li} Using the Scientific Method Observe and describe phenomenon. Form hypothesis or theory to explain phenomenon. Set up observations or experiments to generate results. Use hypothesis or theory to make predictions. Modify hypothesis or theory to account for results. Abandon hypothesis or theory. Results match hypothesis or theory. The scientific method can be used with quantitative or qualitative forms of-em— ‘ pirical research. Whether you are doing an experiment 1n a laboratory or making f field observations, following the scientific method will help you focus. and streamline your research. It should help you produce the kinds of results that Wlll prov1de a solid empirical foundation for your work. Managing Information and Taking Notes On almost any subject, you are going to find a wealth of information. At this pomt, you need to start thinking like an information manager. After all, only some of the m- formation that you collected will be important to your readers. Most of the informa— tion you find will not be needed by your readers to take action or make a decrsion (Figure 7.11). Figure 7.10: The “scientific method" is a systematic way to study a phenomenon by forming a hypothesis and developing empirical methods to test it. Need-to—Know Versus Want-tonTell Information Need-to~Know . Want—to-Tell Information Information Managing information As you decide what to include in the document you are writing, you need to distin- guish between need—to—know information and want-to-tell information. Need-to-know information: Material that your readers require to take action or make a decision. Want-to-tell information: Material that you would like to tell your read- ers but that is not necessary form them to take action or make a decision. 0 Need—to—know information includes material that your readers require to take action or make a decision. 0 Wmit—to-tell information includes material that you would like to tell your read— ers but that is not necessary for them to take action or make a decision. After you have gone through all the effort to collect information, you will want to tell the readers about everything you found. But your readers don’t need (or want) all that information. They want only the information they need to take action or make an informed decision. Any extra want—to-tell information will just cloud their ability to understand your document. Take Note You may find it discouraging that your final document uses only a quarter or even one‘tenth of the information that you collected. Nevertheless, you need to put your readers’ interests first. They will always prefer concise quality over quantity. Careful Note Taking Reliable note taking is essential when you do research. If you are organized when you take notes, you will find the information you collected easy to use in the document you are writing. For some great ideas on note taking, go to www.ablongman.corn/johnsonwebz/7.15 Figure 7.11: While researching, you will find much more information than your readers need. Give them only the information they need to make a decision. Bibliographic information o the source Summary of source Direct quote from source from researc Note—organizing software and database programs can help you keep track of the information you find. Many researchers write their notes exclusrvely on a laptop or their personal digital assistant (PDA). A pen and pad of paper is still a good way to keep track of information. Take Note Entering notes directly into a computer is a good idea. You can-then use the Find function in your word processor to locate specific terms or Information In your notes. Moreover, computers allow you to cut and paste quotes quickly. Handwritten notes are often hard to interpret later. What is most important, though, is to have a workable system for taking notes. Here are some note—taking strategies you might con51der usmg: Record each source separately. Take down quotations. Paraphrase ideas. Summarize sources. Write commentary. itiitittltl) l-1\t‘.i I Sitt'ltil; slil’itt \’l‘l’.l .Y Make sure you clearly identify the author, title of the work, and the place Where you found the information (Figure 7.12). For information off the Internet, write down the webpage address (URL) and the date. and time you found the information. For a print document, Wl‘lte'dOWD where the 1n— formation was published and who published it. Also, record the library number of the document. Keeping Notes on Your Computer 8 n O DarWiantE-docio H ll II N I‘ H ‘7 ( rp t ‘ a ‘ x ‘4 5‘ o ‘ , 1 r ‘ , ‘ I ‘ ' tary, 3rd Darwin. Charles. Origin of Species (1859). reprinted in Darwin. Texts, Commen “\l~> Ieditlon; Philip Appleman, ed., New York: WW. Norton. 2001. QH365 29 A7 2001 r ' i Drawin from his notes during his voyage on the HMS Beagle. Danrtn developed his theory 0 evolutioii (95). Darwin's theory is based on the conceptof “Natural Selection In which nature uses “Survival of the Filtest" to ensure thathelptul characteristics are retalnedln a spectes. Defining Natural Selecion. Darwin writes. “Can it then. be thoughtimprobableseelngthat variations useful to man have undoubtedly ‘f . uld sometimesoccur in the course of thousandsofgenerations?" such occur. can we iigulii‘gememberinghatmany more individuals are born than can possibly survrve) that many moreindividuals having any advantage. however slight over others would have the best chance of surviving and of procreatingtheir kind? On the otherhand. we may feel sure thatany variation In the least injuriouswould be rigidly destroyed. This preservation of favorable variations and the rejection of injuriousvariations. I call Natural Selection." (112) ’1’” occurred. lhatothervarlations useful in someway to each being in the greatand complex battle of commentary ' ' ' ' the ideas of Malttus to suggest that exponential : M note. Noice In this passage how Darwrn uses I ' H m broywth of a species will compete for limited resources. I also detect some of Adam 8th s definitions : olcapitalism in here. Better check on that] z :3 a] a :1: I 800 I III M 2.7cm Ln I Col I 0/236 93 ifREC IITRK [fEXT Z?DVR For links to notetaking software, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/7.16 . I, Figure 7.12: Most notes include a combination of summaries, paraphrases, direct quotes, and personal comments. For large research projects, you might consider making a separate word- processing file for each of your authors or sources, like the one shown in Figure 7.12. That way, you can more easily keep your notes organized. ’l' \lili l)()\\'.\‘ Qt'o'l‘x'i‘lttxs When an author makes an especially interesting state— ment or claim, you may want to copy a direct quotation from the text. When taking down a quotation, you need to be sure that you copy the exact wording of the author. If you are taking a quote from a website, you might avoid errors by using the Copy and Paste functions of your computer to copy the statement directly from your source into your notes. In your notes, you should put quotation marks around any material you copied word for word from a source. According to Louis Pakiser and Kaye Shedlock, scientists for the Earthquake Hazards Program at the US. Geological Survey, "the assumption of random occurrence with time may not be true." (1997, para. 3) If the quoted material runs more than three lines in your text, you should set off the material by indenting it in the text. Louis Pakiser and Kaye Shedlock, scientists for the Earthquake Hazards Program at the US. Geological Survey, make the following point: When plate movements build the strain in rocks to a critical level, like pulling a rubber band too tight, the rocks will suddenly break and slip to a new position. Scientists measure how much strain accumulates along a fault segment each year, how much time has passed since the last earthquake along the segment, and how much strain was released in the last earthquake. (1997, para. 4) if we apply this rubber band analogy to the earthquake risk here in California . . . When you are quoting materials, you also need to include an in-text citation at the end of the quote. In these two examples, the in-text citation is the information in the parentheses. Overall, you should use direct quotes sparingly in your technical writingYou might be tempted to use several quotes from a source, because the authors “said it right.” If you use too many quotes, though, your writing will sound fragmented and patchy, because the quotes disrupt the flow of your text. P.\R.\l’l trust-1 ll)l¥L.\S A better way to incorporate someone else’s ideas into your writing is to paraphrase them. When paraphrasing, you are presenting another person’s ideas in your mm words.You still need to give the original author credit for the ideas, but you do not need to use quotation marks around the text. To paraphrase something, you should: 0 reorganize the information to highlight important points. 0 use plain language, replacing jargon and technical terms with simpler words. 0 include an in—text citation. r hit-attrijritiit; llrizlvllriliiiiltlr:w tlil mil-ttriflir'iitmf‘: For more information on citing sources, go to Appendix C, page A—23. Iii-text citation Simple language is used. In the following example, a quote from an original document is paraphrased: Original Quote "But in many places, the assumption of random occurrence with time may not be true, because when strain is released along one part of the fault system, it may actually Increase on another part. Four magnitude 6.8 or larger earthquakes and many magnitude 6—6.5 shocks occurred in the San Francisco Bay region during the 75 years between 1836 and 1911. For the next 68 years (until 1979), no earthquakes of magnitude 6 or larger occurred in the region. Beginning with a magnitude 6.0 shock in 1979, the earthquake actiVity in the region increased dramatically; between 1979 and 1989, there were four magnitude 6'0r greater earthquakes, including the magnitude 7.1 Lorna Prieta earthquake. This clustering of earthquakes leads scientists to estimate that the probability of a magnitude 6.8 or larger earthquake occurring during the next 30 years in the San Francisco Bay region is about 67 percent (twice as likely as not)” Effective Paraphrase Pakiser and Shedlock (1997) report that large earthquakes are mostly predictable, because an earthquake in one place usually increases the likelihood of an earthquake somewhere nearby. They point out that the San Francisco area—known for earthquakes—has experienced long periods of minor earthquake activity (most notably from 1836 to 1911, / when no earthquakes over magnitude 6 occurred). At other times In San Francisco, major earthquakes have arrived with more frequency, because large earthquakes tend to trigger other large earthquakes in the area. Improper Paraphrase Pakiser and Shedlock (1997) report the assumption of random occurrence of earthquakes MUG“ 0f the \ may not be accurate. Earthquakes along one part of a fault system may increase the original wording is retained. frequency of earthquakes in another part. For example, the San Francisco bay region experienced many large earthquakes between 1836 and 1911. For the next SIX decades until 1979, only smaller earthquakes (below magnitude 6) occurred in the area. Then, there was a large rise in earthquakes between 1979 and 1989. Scientists estimate that the / probability of an earthquake of magnitude 6.8 or larger is 67 percent in the next 30 years in the Bay area. The “effective” paraphrase shown here uses the ideas of the original quote, while m reordering information to highlight important points and simplifying the language. For more information on plagiarism, see page 174 in this chapter. The“improper” paraphrase above duplicates too much of the wording from the origi- nal source and does not effectively reorder information to highlight important points. In fact, this improper paraphrase is so close to the original, it could be considered plagiarism. In many ways, paraphrasing is superior to using direct quotes. A paraphrase . allows you to simplify the language of a technical document, making the information easier for the readers to understand. Also, you can better blend the paraphrased in— formation into your writing because you are using your writing style, not the style of the source. As a warning, when taking notes make sure you are paraphrasing sources prop— erly. Do not use the author’s original words and phrases. Otherwise, when you are drafting your document, you may forget that you copied some of the wording from Some of the more technical details have been removed to enhance understanding. Language is still overly technical for the readers. the original text. These duplications may leave you vulnerable to charges of plagia- rism or copyright violation. 81'\l\1 \RlZli 801110118 When summarizing, your goal is to condense the ideas from your source into a brief passage. Summaries usually strip out many of the examples, details, data, and reasoning from the original text, leaving only the essential informa— tion that readers need to know. Like a paraphrase, summaries should be written in your own words. When you are summarizing a source for your notes: Read the source carefully to gain an overall understanding. Highlight or underline the main point and other key points. Condense key points into lists, where appropriate. Organize information from most important to least important. Use plain language to replace any technical terms or jargon in the original. Use in-text citations to identify important ideas from the source. To see an example of summarizing, consider the passage about predicting earth— quakes shown in Figure 7. 13. When summarizing this text, you would first need to identify the main point and key points in the text. The main point is that scientists Original Text to be Summarized §USGS Predicting Earthquakes The goal of earthquake prediction is to give warning of potentially damaging earthquakes early enough to allow appropriate response to the disaster. enabling people to minimize loss of life and property. The US. Geological Survey conducts and supports research on the likelihood of future earthquakes. This research includes lield, laboratory, and theoretical investigations of earthquake mechanisms and fault zones. A primary goal of earthquake research is to increase the reliability of earthquake probability estimates. Ultimately. scientists would like to be able to specify a high probability for a specific earthquake on a particular fault within a particular year. Scientists estimate earthquake probabilities in mo \vays' by studying the history of large earthquakes in a specific area and the rate at which strain accumulates in the rock. This I/meeekpasure photograph o/rhe electronfcc/axer. ylflulfd-flml/Dfl Irimemenr system In operation a! Pd/Afield. California. [0 track movement along I/ie 5.1/7 And/5.15 fut/fr. Full Mic“ ffll 2g; » 40 k Scientists study the past frequency of large earthquakes in order to determine the future likelihood of similar large shocks. For example. if a region has experienced four magnitude 7 or larger earthquakes during 200 years of recorded history. and if these shocks occurred randomly in time, then scientists would assign a 50 percent probability (that 15. just as liker to happen as not to happen) to the occurrence of another magnitude 7 or larger quake in the region during the next so years. But in many places. the assumption of random occurrence with time may not be true. because when strain ls released along one part of the fault system. it may actually increase on another part. Four magnitude 6.8 or larger earthquakes and many magnitude 6 — 6.5 shocks occurred in the San Francisco Bay region during the 75 years between 1836 and 1911. For the next 68 years luntil 1979). no earthquakes of magnitude 6 or larger occurred in the region. Beginning mm a magnitude 6.0 shock in 1979. the earthquake activity in the region increased dramatically: between 1979 and 1985. there were four magnitude 6 or greater earthquakes. including the magnitude 7.1Loma Prieta earthquake. This clustering of earthquakes leads scientists to estimate that the probability of a magnitude 6.8 or larger earthquake occurring during the next 30 years in the San Francisco Bay region is about 67 percent (twice as likely as not), Another my to estimate the likelihood of future earthquakes is to study how fast stratn accumulates. when plate movements build the strain in rocks to a critical level. like pulling a rubber band too tight, the rocks i-.ill suddenly break and slip to a new position. Scientists measure how much strain accumulates along a fault segment each year, how much time has passed since the last earthquake along the segment, and how much strain was released in the last earthquake. This information is then used to calculate the time required for the accumulating strain to build to the level that results in an earthquake. This simple model is complicated by the fact that such detailed information about faults is rare. In the United States, only the San Andreas fault system has adequate records for using this prediction method. Both of these methods. and a wide array of monitoring techniques. are being tested along part of the San Andres fault. For the past 150 years, earthquakes of about magnitude 6 have occurred an average of every 22 years on the San Andreas fault near Parkfreld, California. The last shock was in 1966. Because of the consistency and similarity of these earthquakes. scientists have started an experiment to 'capture' the next Parkfield earthquake. A dense vieb of monitoring instruments was deployed in the region during the late 19805. The main goals of the ongoing Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment are to record the geophysical signals before and after the expected earthquake: to issue a short—term prediction: and to develop effective methods of communication bent-een earthquake scientists and community officials responsibte for disaster response and mitigation. This protect has already made important contributions to both earth science and public policy. Scientific understanding of earthquakes IS of vital importance to the Nation. As the population increases, expanding urban development and construction works encroach upon areas susceptible to earthquakes. With a greater understanding of the causes and effects of earthquakes. we may be able to reduce damage and loss of life from this destructive phenomenon. El kanlormntion v Edutaionaodfluusadi This page is URL.http.IIpubs.usgs.govlgip/earthql/predicthtml Maintained by lghn \"glgtin and Kathie Wg «in Last modified 10-23-97 (jniw) Figure 7.13: The original text contains many details that can be condensed into a summary. are increasingly able to estimate the probability of an earthquake in a specific area in the near future. Now, locate the other key points in the text, of which there are three: (1) the frequency of earthquakes in the past helps scientists predict them in the future; (2) earthquakes are not random events, and they tend to occur in clusters; and (3) measurements of the strain on the earth can help scientists measure the proba— bility of a future earthquake. In the summary shown in Figure 7.14, pay attention to the highlighting of the main point and the listing of the other key points. Here, the details in the original text have been stripped away, leaving only a condensed version. As shown here, the summary uses the writer‘s own words, not the words from the original source. Summary of flriginal Text The main point fi—> is expressed up front. The summary ——> uses plain language. Summary of “Predicting Earthquakes” by Louis Pakiser and Kaye Shedlock (1997). http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/predict.html. Retrieved March 10, 2004. The goal of earthquake prediction is to anticipate earthquakes that may cause major damage in a region. According to geologists Louis Pakiser and Kaye Shedlock from the U.S. Geological Survey, scientists are increasingly able to predict the likelihood of an earthquake in a region in the near future (1997). Scientists use two important methods to predict large earthquakes: ' They study the frequency of earthquakes in the past, especially the recent past, because large earthquakes tend to trigger other large earthquakes. - They measure the strain on the earth to determine the buildup of pressure along fault lines. These measurements can be used to predict when the strain will be released as an earthquake. As Pakiser and Shedlock point out, earthquakes are not random events. They tend to occur in “clusters” over periods of several years. By paying attention to these clusters of earthquakes, scientists can make rather reliable predictions about the probability of a future large quake. Figure 7.1.0.»: A summary highlights important points and puts the text in plain language. The important points are put into list form. \\'RlTl{ (i().\l.\ll~iN'll\R\‘ In your notes, you might offer your own commentary to help interpret your sources.Your commentary might help you remember why you collected the information and how you thought it could be used. To avoid plagiarism, it is im- portant to visually distinguish your commentary from summaries, paraphrases, and (clifisgplzz: ll, l{lilililllli'iilllléfizlllii li'iiillialjtlilgi iliiifulnl-l'rixln For more tips on paraphrasing and summarizing, go to WWW.ablongman.com/johnsonwebZ/ 7.17 quotations drawn from other sources.You might put brackets around your comments or use italic or bold type to set them off from your other notes. Documenting Sources As you draft your text, you will need to document your sources. Documentation in— volves (1) naming each source with an in-text citation and (2) recording your sources in the References list at the end of the document. Documenting your sources offers the advantages of: 0 Supporting your claims by referring to the research of others. 0 Helping build your credibility with readers by showing them the support for your ideas. 0 Reinforcing the thoroughness of your research methodology. 0 Allowing your readers to explore your sources for more information. When should you document your sources? Any ideas, text, or images that you draw from another text need to be properly acknowledged. If you are in doubt about whether you need to cite someone else’s work, you should go ahead and do it. Citing sources will help you avoid any questions about the integrity and soundness of your work. In Appendix C at the end of this book, you will find a full discussion of three doc— umentation systems (APA, CSE, and MLA) that are used in technical fields. Each of these systems works differently. The most common documentation style for technical fields is offered by the American Psychological Association (APA). The APA style, published in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, is preferred in technical fields because it puts emphasis on the year of publication. As an example, let us briefly look at the APA style for in—text citations and full references. .\l’.\ INJI’le'I‘ (Il'l‘.\'l‘l()Xs‘ In APA style, in-text citations can include the author’s name, publication year, and the page number where the information was found. one important study showed that physicians were regularly misusing antibiotics to treat Viruses (Reynolds, 2003). According to Reynolds (2003), physicians are regularly misusing antibiotics to treat viruses. According to Reynolds, “Doctors are creating larger problems by mistakenly treating Viruses with antibiotics" (2003, p. 743). These in—text citations are intended to refer the readers back to the list of full ref— erences at the end of the document. .\l’.\ ill] 1 ltlil‘l-ZRICMLICS The full references at the end of the document provide readers With the complete citation for each source (Figure 7.15). Jaspers, F. (2001). Einstein online. Retrieved March 9, 2003, from http://www.einsteinonlinetoo.com Pauling, L., & Wilson, E. B. (1935). Introduction to quantum mechanics. New York: Dover Publications. Need help citing sources? Go to Hittite}! www.ablongman.com/johnsonWebZ/ 7.18 it ll i it n rat in «i i » , . l l 21 fill lé‘, hit!) iii-ii For a full discussion of documentation, including models for documenting references, turn to Appendix 0, page A-23. Rampton, in their book Toxic Sludge Is Good for You, show how public relations agents Elements of an APA Full Reference did everything possible to undermine Carson and her findings. was retrieved from the site i Title of website $321? :éiggnce The attacks were vicious, and Carson’s. reputation was compromised. But Carson for an APA was right: DDT is a very dangerous chernrcal. Eventually, it was banned Hi the Year, Of . citation contains United States as the scientific evidence mounted against it. Unfortunately, the junk j ‘l l pumlcatmn ‘ ‘ I he Retrieved March 9, 2003, from some standard science attacks on her reputation did great damage and allowed DDT to stay on the l i ‘ Author's name ————r——‘>Iaspers’ F' (zoom Emmi” ($1116th com elements“ Here is market longer than it should have. i“ with OHIY inmal http://www'emsmno ' anf “$33028 Junk science can be used on all sides of a debate to support Various causesYou ; i . for first name Lieggtel will find junk science actively used by chemical companies, extreme environmental ; i groups, antienvironmental groups, the diet industry, the oil industry, the tobacco in- l 11 FM: URL f fotte t. dustry, and proponents and opponents of genetically modified foods. 4 . i ad r955 0 in orma Ion the site Take Note Ironically, some special-interest groups will use the term junk science to attack the legitimate work of real scientists. For example, global warming research is often attacked asjunk science. even though these scientists are highly reputable and their stud- ies are broadly correlated. Note: There is no period at the end of the online source How do you distinguish real science from junk when you are doing research on the Internet? It’s actuall ver difficult, but here are some Ointersz As you take notes you should keep track of the information needed to properly y y p cite your sources. That way, when you draft the document and create a references list, you will have this important information available. It‘s very difficult to locate the sources of your information after you finish drafting the document. Follow the money—If the scientists behind a study receive all of their funding from a corporation or group that benefits from their results, there is a good chance that these scientists are being paid to generate specific results. Their re— sults could be biased. Check the reputations—Some “experts” on scientific issues are not really sci— entists at all. They are public relations consultants whose real job is to spin science for the media, castng doubt on the work of reliable scientists. So, look into the education and work experience of these“experts” to determine whether they are scientists. Avoiding Junk Science on the Internet The Internet has been a boon for the “junk science” industry. Junk scrence 1: realéliyal- not science at all. It is a public relations tool that corporations, lawyers, fair 1:3: ate interest groups use to confuse the public or cast doubt on the findings o Hike scientists. Junk science is the selective use. of datai, screntrfic style, or scren olitical or econornrc agen a. I mefifidfiafidflfiigy has been the most flagrant user of junk screrlice. For dszades, it employed scientists to confuse and cast doubt on findings that'smo {1ng (:(u osed cancer and other health problems. The tobacco industry s deception: wer d Ever key only when their own scientists, most notably chemist Jeffrey Wigan , urne ments to the overnment and media. . ' doc(Sine of the mos? infamous uses of junk science was the response to biologist Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring. In the book, Carson exposed DDT, an irislectiCidieiIasthtleie cause of a variety of illnesses. Designed to kill insects, DDT was wide yyusie H mans United States, and ended up killing many forms of Wildlife, espeCially ir b us ra ed also became dangerously ill. Whole neighborhoods and Wildlife areas wgu 1e p y with DDT, leaving a path of dead birds, sickened animals, and porsone petip e. d .unk Instead of immediately pulling DDT off the market, Carson s opponiergh Sen 3 science tactics to attack her credibility and her book. John Stauber an e o Check the source—Reliable science is typically published in peer—reviewed jour— nals. If the only “scientific” evidence you find for an argument is from a com— pany 0r special-interest group, it might be junk science. Look for impartial sources to confirm that information. Check the science—Reliable science follows the scientific method. The results should be repeatable or publicly available. If the methodology looks flimsy or the data are not available, the results are probably unreliable. Remember that if it sounds too extreme, it probably is—Special-interest groups like to scare people by exaggerating the results of scientific studies. Be skeptical of studies that seem to contradict common sense (e. g, global warm— ing is good for the planet) 0r seem too far-fetched (e.g., AIDS was a CIA experi- ment gone awry). Junk science is a serious problem on the Internet. As you are researching an issue, you need to be skeptical and cross-check your sources. Always rely on a broad base of sources to confirm your information. x ' Want to learn more about junksciené' 5 “ "1,55’iwithinablongman-Qom/rohnsonrve7. For help evaluating electronic sources, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/7.20 ' " inter {1' trinitgimli :J ~i Appraising Your Information All information is not created equal. In fact, some information is downright wrong or misleading. Keep in mind that even the most respected authorities usually have. agendas that they are pursuing with their research. Even the most objective experi— ment will include some tinge of bias. . ' To avoid misleading information and researcher biases, you need to appraise the in— formation you have collected and develop an overall sense of what the truth might be (Figure 7.16). Here are some questions you might use to appraise your Information: 0 Is the source reliable? ' How biased is the source? 0 Am I biased? ' Is the source up to date? 0 Can the information be verified? Questions for Appraising Your Information Information Source Is the Source Reliable? Usually, the most reliable sources of information are sources that have limited per— sonal, political, or financial stakes in the subject. For example, clalms about the. . safety of pesticides from a company that sells pesticides need to be carefully verified. Meanwhile, a study on pesticides by a university professor should be less biased, be— cause the professor is not selling the product. Take Note Keep in mind that professors might receive significant funding from compa- nies that support their research. Even the seemingly least biased sources are recelvmg funding from somewhere. Those funding sources may bias results. To ensure that your sources are reliable, you should always do some checking on their authors. Use an Internet search engine like Altavista.com or Googlecom to Figure 7.16: Challenge your sources by asking questions about their biases and validity. check out the authors, company, or organization that produced the materials. If the researchers have a good reputation, the information is probably reliable. If you can find little or no information about the researchers, company, or organization, you should be skeptical about their research. How Biased Is the Source? It is safe to say that all sources of information have some bias. There is no such thing as a completely objective source. So, you need to assess the amount of bias in your source. For example, facts on creation science websites that are used to dispute Darwinian evolution are usually biased toward theories that reinforce the biblical creation story. Their information is still usable in some situations—you might even accept it as true—but you need to recognize the inherent bias in such material. Even the most reliable sources have some bias. Researchers, after all, very much want their hypotheses to be true, so irregularities in their results might be over— looked. Bias is a natural part of research. So, when you are assessing bias, consider how much the researchers want their results to be true. If the researchers indicate that at the beginning of their research, they were open to a range of answers, then the bias of the material is probably minimal. If only one answer was acceptable to the re— searchers (e.g., smoking does not cause lung cancer), then the material should be considered heavily biased. Am I Biased? As a researcher, you need to carefully examine your own biases. We all go into a re— search project with our own beliefs and expectations of what we will find. Our own biases can cause us to overlook evidence that contradicts our beliefs or expectations. For example, our beliefs about gender, race, sexuality, poverty, or religion, among other social issues, can strongly influence the way we conduct research and interpret our findings. These influences cannot be completely avoided, but they can be identi— fied and taken into consideration. To keep your own biases in check, consider your research subject from an alterna— tive or opposing perspective. At a minimum, considering alternative Views will only strengthen your confidence in your research. But, in some cases, you may actually gain a new perspective that can help you further your research. Is the Source Up to Date? Depending on the field of study, results from prior research can become obsolete rather quickly. For instance, three-year—old research on skin cancer might already be considered outdated. On the other hand, climate measurements that are over 100 years old are still usable today. Try to find the most recent sources on your subject. Reliable sources will usually offer a literature review that traces research on the subject back at least a few years. These literature reviews will show you how quickly the field is changing, while allow- ing you to judge whether the information you have located is current. 5‘s . . For more information on finding people on the Internet, go to Chapter 3, page 47. Can the Information Be Verified? You should be able to find more than one independent source that verifies the infor— mation you find. If you find the same information from a few different independent “fl 3 sources, chances are good that the information is reliable. If you find the information i l in only one or two places, it is probably less reliable. ' I . “ 1' Triangulation is the key to verifying information. If you can find the information i i r in diverse electronic and print sources, it is probably information you can trust. You i i might also use empirical methods to confirm or challenge the results of others. You do not need to cite sources that offer information that is “common knowl- edge.” If you find the same information in a few different sources, you probably do not need to document that information. But, if you have any doubts you might want ‘ to Cite the sources anyway to avoid any plagiarism problems. , 1 Unfortunately, cases of plagiarism are on the rise. One of the downsides of online i texts, such as websites, is the ease of plagiarism. Some students have learned tech- niques of patchwriting,” in which they cut and paste text from the Internet and then ' I I l reVise it into a document. This kind of writing is highly vulnerable to charges of pla— i glarism, so it should be avoided. In the end, plagiarism harms mostly the person doing 5 it. Plagiarism is kind of like running stoplights. People get away with it for only so long. Then, when they are caught, the penalties can be severe. Moreover, whether intentional or unintentional, plagiarizng reinforces some lazy habits. . Assessing Your Information ‘ l Avoiding Plaglarism ‘ 3 One thing to watch out for is plagiarism in your own work, whether it is intentional or unintentional. 0 is the source reliable? i i I B ‘ . . . . . . l Plagiarism is the plagiarism is the use of Others, Words, images, or ideas without acknowledgment : Eiasegfl the source? thfiglgwiinxgvolfkoiliaviilso Iflliaglif'lde fiflli 1t dlfficult to do use of otherS’ or permission. In most cases, plagiarism is unintentional.While researching, a person 0 Is the lsaosuerce up to date? SearCh Skins YO,” best :ppfgaél 1:120 :‘flfizgise- ' I i ‘ . I t i ' . ism in words, Images. might cut and paste information off webs1tes or duphcate passages fiom 3‘ bOOk' 0 Can the information be the M“ place' r i 0' ideas Without Later, he or she might use the exact text, forgetting that the information was COpied wled ment . Effigfmissfin directly from a source. . ' I In rare cases, plagiarism is intentional and therefore a form of academic dishon- esty. In these cases, teachers and colleges will often punish plagiarizers by having them fail the course, putting them on academic probation, or even expelling them. Intentional plagiarism is a serious form of dishonesty. To avoid plagiarizing, keep careful track of your sources and acknowledge where you found your information. Keep track of sources—Whenever you are gathering information from a source, carefully note where that information came from. If you are cutting and pasting information from an online source, make sure you put quota- tion marks around that material and clearly identify where you found it. verified? Research today involves collecting information from diverse sources that are available in many media, including the Internet. 0 Effectively managing existing information is often as important as creating new information. 0 [Logical mapping can be used to define a subject and highlight places where information needs to be found. ; Acknowledge your sources—Any W01dS,S€nteHC€S,1magesa data: 01 umque i r— ‘ ‘ l ideas that you take from another source should be properly Cited. If you are 5‘ E O A reseal Ch méthOdOlogy IS a planned’ Step-by—Step prOCEdure that you Will use to I taking a direct quote from a source, use quotation marks to set it off from : “1. EU study the subject. Your research methodology can be revised as needed as your your writing. If you are paraphrasing the work 0f Othel‘S, make sure you Fite 1 ‘73 Fn'l researCh moves forward. them with an in—text citation and put a full—text Citation in a references list. " x 0 Triangulation is a process of using electronic, print, and empirical sources to ‘ ; ASk permissmn_1f you want to include Others, images or large blocks of obtain and evaluate your findings and conclusions. i text in your work, write them an e—mail to ask permission. Downloading ' ' ' - ' - % pictures and graphics off the Internet is really easy. But those images are ' OAIEZZESéIfiingénformation, you should carefully assess whether it is biased or information on usually someone’s property If you are using them for educational purposes: I 80, e aware Of your own blases. ‘ obtfiiggigon go you can probably include them Withou‘t asking permsspn But, if you are ' Careful note taking is essential for researchYou should keep close track of your ‘ l foe Chapter '5' using them for any other reason, you 111mb; need to obtaln permlSSIOIl fiom sources and use your research carefully in summarizing, paraphrasing, and ‘ quoting sources. page 105. their owner. To learn more about plagiarismgo to www.,ablongman/Iohnsonweb2/721 (clir:1:i’l:irl;l=i'lizirr .' . =jl,',/,/ll.,'i I li it: rm hi to r: r “'1 5x l'l"| 5:: '02 55m as m n ....| m Individual or Team Projects 1. Think of a technical subject that interests you. Then, collect information from elec- tronic and print sources. Write a progress report to your instructor in which you highlight themes in the materials you’ve found. Discuss any gaps in the informa- tion that you might be able to fill with more searching 0r empirical study. Some possible topics might include the following: Wildlife on campus Surveillance in America Hybrid motor cars The problems with running red lights on or near campus Safety on campus at night The effects of acid rain in Canada Migration of humpback whales 2. On the Internet, find information on a subject that you think is junk science or is influenced by junk science. Pay close attention to the reputations 0f the re— searchers and their results. Can you find any information to back up their claims? Pay special attention to where they receive their funding for the research. When you are finished searching the web, make a report to your class on your findings. Show your audience how junk science influences the debate on your subject. Here are a few possible topics: Evolution versus creation science Genetically engineered foods Managing forests to prevent fires Cell phones and cancer Experimentation on animals Herbicides and insecticides Diets and dietary supplements Global warming Smoking and secondhand smoke Air and water pollution Transporting nuclear waste Welfare abuse 3. Survey your class on a campus issue that interests you. Write five questions and let your classmates select among answers lil<e“strongly agree,”“agree,”“disagree,” and“str0ngly disagree.” Then, tabulate the results of the survey. Write a memo to your instructor in which you discuss the trends you found in your findings. In your memorandum, also point out places where your methodology might be chal- lenged by someone who doubts your findings. Discuss how you might strengthen your survey if you wanted to do a larger study on this subject. in. M 1 Hal , 1m inns-.1 Collaborative Project With a group, develop a methodology for studying substance abuse (alcohol abuse or abuse of prescription drugs or illegal drugs) on campus. First, use logical mapping to identify what you already know or believe about substance abuse on your campus Second, formulate a research question that your research will answer. Third use logi- cal mapping to sketch out a methodology that would help you generate reSIilts to answer your research question. Your methodology should use triangulation to gather information from a broad range of sources. In other words, you should plan to gather information from elec- tronic, print, and empirical sources. Finally, write up your methodology, showing the step—by-step procedures you will use to study substance abuse on campus.Y0ur methodology should be written in such a way that others can duplicate it. It should also clearly identify the kinds of results you expect your research to generate. Give your methodology to your instructor. At this point, your instructor may ask you to continue your research, following your methodology. As you do your re- search, note places where you changed your methodology or found information you did not expect. For websites that discuss substance abuse on college campuses, go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/ 7.22 Bye-Bye, Bll‘dleS George Benks is a genetic engineering student at Missouri Tech University. During the summer of his junior year, he landed a great job as a field research assistant working with Professor Chad Henkle, an agronomist at the university. Professor Henkle and a team of other professors were field-testing a corn hybrid that had a built-in genetic in— secticide. The inserted genes removed the need to spray insecticides on the fields, be— cause insects were killed when they ate the leaves of the plant. The experimental plots that George observed were showing great results. The new genetically modified corn plants seemed to be protected against the harmful pests. Insects that chewed on the plants were dying within 24 hours. George carefully recorded his observations in his field book. Professor Henkle and the whole research team were very enthusiastic about George’s and the other research assistants’ observations. Confirmation of the results meant they would likely receive a large research grant from AgriMonz, an agribusiness company. Moreover, a patent on this new genetically modified corn hybrid might even make Professor Henkle and the others wealthy if AgriMonZ purchased the rights to produce the corn. One problem emerged, though. George began to find greater than normal amounts of dead sparrows in the fields he was observing. He guessed that the sparrows were eating the poi— soned insects and then dying themselves. He didn’t find many dead birds, but enough to cause him some concern. While eating lunch with Professor Henkle, George casually mentioned the dead sparrows. Professor Henkle told him that there are always “residual effects” with these kinds of new hybrids. Besides, sparrows aren’t protected in any way. There are plenty of them, Henkle said, so the loss of some spar— rows is not a problem. George asked if he should mention the dead birds in his final report to the research team. Professor Henkle shrugged and said, “Go ahead, if you like. Personally, I don’t think you should, because those observations are not within the boundaries of the ex- periment. We simply want to know whether the hybrid kills the bugs. The birds aren’t important.” George knew that a few dead birds in experimental fields were probably not that important. But if the hybrid were used widely, the impact on the birds could be signif- icant. Moreover, sparrows weren’t the only kinds of birds that ate the poisoned insects. They were just the ones George was finding dead. What should George do at this point? Would you tell one of the other researchers? If you were in George’s place, would you mention the dead birds in your report to the whole research team? If so, how would you do it? What do you think the research team should do if the hybrid leads to the death of sparrows and perhaps other kinds of birds? A basic organizational pattern that any document can follow. 0 How genres offer patterns for organizing documents. 0 How to outline the organization of a document. v 0 How to use presentation software to organize your information 0 How to organize and draft a document’s introduction. o Patterns of arrangement for or aniZ-m d . . document’s body. g g an draftmg Secuons Of a . . . . Ba81c moves used in a document’s conclusron. 0 Strategies for organizing documents for international readers. Want to learn more about genetic engineering? Go to www.ablongman.com/johnsonweb2/7.23 171$, “Eta-3 ‘iL, (I up h':t::1‘.r~:},,, Hi); Hiram.m‘rzmi'm ...
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07 - Researching and Managing Information How to define...

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