21 - 600 The Flame Mark Harris was recently hired as a...

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Unformatted text preview: 600 The Flame Mark Harris was recently hired as a design engineer at Fun Times Toy Manufacturers, Inc. In a way, the job was a dream come true. Mark liked designing toys, and he had two small children at home. When he began working at the company, he inherited a project from the previous engineer, who had taken a job with another company. The project was an indoor camp- fire made out of a gas stove. The stove produced a flame about a foot tall in a pile of fake logs. The campfire was designed to be used outside, but it could be used inside with special precautions. The prior engineer on the project had already built a prototype. All Mark needed to do was write the instructions for the user’s manual. So, he took the campfire home to try it out with his kids. At home, the campfire started up easily in his living room, but Mark immediately noticed that the flame was somewhat dangerous. As his kids tried to roast marshmallows over the fire, he started to become a little nervous. He wondered if the couch and rug were at risk of catching on fire. Certainly, he could imagine situations where the campfire could be used incorrectly, causing burns or fire. The next day, he stopped by his supervisor’s office to express his concerns. His su- pervisor, though, waved off the problems. “Yeah, the previous guy mentioned some prob- lems, too. All you need to do is fill the user’s manual with warnings and warning symbols. That should protect us from lawsuits.” As Mark walked out the door, his supervisor said, “Listen, we need that thing out the door in a couple weeks. Our manufacturers in Mexico have already retooled their plants, and we’re ready to go. You need to get that manual done right now.” Mark went back to his office a bit concerned. Wouldn’t his company still be negli- gent if people or their property were harmed? Would warnings and warning symbols really protect them from negligence? And even if the company couldn’t be sued, would it be ethical to produce a potentially harmful product? What would you do if you were in Mark’s place? Chapter 2O ‘9 45;, y . . . . _ . Instructions .‘v IllI‘S'W: W: Basic Features of Proposals 602 Planning and Researching Proposals 607 Organizing and Drafting Proposals 611 Help: Reading a Request for Proposals (RFP) 612 Using Style in Proposals 629 Designing Proposals 630 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading 631 Chapter Review 634 Exercises and Projects 634 Case Study: The Mole 644 In this chapter, you will learn: The purpose of proposals and their uses in the workplace. The basic features and types of proposals. How to plan and do research for a proposal. How to organize and draft the major sections in a proposal. Strategies for using plain and persuasive style to make a proposal influential. How document design and graphics can enhance a proposal. Techniques for revising, editing, and proofreading proposals. Proposals are the lifeblood of the technical workplace. No matter What your field Basm Pattern for a Pmposa' is, you will almost surely be asked to write proposals that describe new projects, present innovative ideas, offer new strategies, and promote services. Proposals are The purpose of a proposal is to present ideas and plans for your readers’ consid- , Front Man" documeUts that eration. Here are just a few examples of how proposals are used in the technical present Ideas workplace, and plans for Introduction Your readers' 0 An electronic engineer would use a proposal to describe a new kind of plasma— °°n5iderafi°m screen television that his team wants to develop. ' A manager would use a proposal to argue for the use of robots to automate the assembly line at her factory. ° A civil engineer would use a proposal to propose a monorail system in the downtown of a city. 0 A marine biologist would use a proposal to request funding for her study of the effects of sonar on blue whale migrations. Current Situation \ Graphics, such as pictures, tables, and p - tp, graphs, can he used ‘ mm an throughout the body . . . of the proposal. Computers have mcreased the speed and competitrveness of proposal development. They have heightened the sophistication of proposals, allowing writers to use graph- ics, color, and even video to enhance the persuasiveness of their ideas. Effective proposal writing is a crucial skill in today’s technical workplaces. Almost all projects begin with proposals, so you need to learn how to write these important documents effectively if you want to succeed. Qualifications Costs and Benefits Basic Features of Proposals Proposals are used “internally” or “externally” in a technical workplace. Internal Conclusion proposals are used within companies to plan or propose new projects or products. External proposals are used to offer services or products to clients outside the com- - pany. Both external and internal proposals tend to have the following features: ‘ BaCK Matter l 0 Introduction 0 Description of the current situation - Description of the project plan 0 Review of qualifications 0 Discussion of costs and benefits ' Graphics new projects. Or, your team might be asked to write a proposal that answers 0 Budget a request for proposals (RFP) sent out by a client. Figure 211 shows how these features are usually arranged in the document AS Unsolicited proposals are proposals not requested by the readers. For exam- With other technical documents, though, you should not mechanically follow the pat— Plea your team might Prepare an UDSOHCited internal Proposal to PitCh an tern described here. The proposal genre is not a formula. It is only a model that offers innovative new idea to the company’s management. Or, your team might use a guideline for writing. You should alter this pattern to suit the needs of your pro— unsoudted GXtemal Proposal as a sales t001 to Offer your Companyis posal’s subject, purpose, readers, and context of use. Chems a Pmduct 0T SerVice- Proposals are also classified as solicited or unsolicited, depending on whether they Figure 21.2 shows a solicited proposal written for “internal” purposes. In this ex- were requested or not. ample, a team within the company is pitching a plan to overhaul the company’s website. Notice how the proposal is used to persuade management to agree to the team’s ideas. Solicited proposals are proposals requested by the readers. For example, your company’s management might ask your team to submit a proposal for Chapter 21 Proposals Basic Features of Proposals Figure 21.1: Proposals tend to address these areas, though not always in this order. 603 Internal x) proposals are often written in memo format. Background information signals that the proposal was solicited. This section describes the current situation. 604 An Internal Solicited Proposal To: Re: a o o Date: April 10, 2006 Jim Trujillo, VP of Operations From: Sarah Voss, Lambda Engineering Team Leader Cutting Costs At our meeting on April 5th, you asked each project team to come up with one good idea for cutting costs. Our team met on April 6th to kick around some ideas. At this meeting we decided that the best way to cut costs is to expand and enhance the company’s website. Our Current Website When we developed the current website in Spring 1999, it served our company’s purposes quite well. Websites were still new, and ours did a good job of serving the few customers who used it. Seven years later, our website is no longer cutting edge—it’s obsolete. The website looks antiquated, making our company seem out of touch does not address our customers’ questions about current products does not address our customers’ needs for product documen— tation is not a tool that our salespeople can use to provide answers and documentation to the customers does not answer frequently asked questions, forcing clients to call our toll—free customer service lines for answers to simple questions. As a result, our outdated website is causing a few important problems. First, we are likely losing sales because our customers don’t see us as cutting edge. Second, we are wasting hundreds of thousands of dollars on printed documents that the customers throw away after a glance. And, third, we are unnecessarily spending many more thousands of dollars on customer service representatives and tollfree phone lines. A conservative estimate suggests that our outdated website could be costing us around $400,000 each year. Chapter 21 Proposals Figure 21.2: This small proposal is an internal proposal that is pitching a new idea to a manager. After a brief introduction it describes the current situation and offers a plan for solving a problem. It concludes by highlighting the benefits of the plan. The main point of the proposal is stated up front. This section offers a plan for the readers’ consideration. The plan is described step by step. Renovating the Website We believe a good way to cut costs and improve customer relations is to renovate the website. We envision a fully interactive site that customers can use to find answers to their questions, check on prices, and communicate with our service personnel. Meanwhile, our sales staff can use the website to discuss our products with clients. Instead of lugging around printed documents, our salespeople would use their laptop computers to show products or make presentations. Renovating the site will require four major steps: Step One: Study the Potential Uses of Our Website With a consultant, we should study how our website might be better used by customers and salespeople. The consultant would survey our chents and salespeople to determine what kind of website would be most useful to them. The consultant would then develop a design for the website. Step Two: Hire a Professional Web Designer to Renovate the Site We should hire a professional web designer to implement our design, because modern websites are rather complex. A professional would provide us with an efficient, well—organized website that would include all the functions we are seeking. Step Three: Train One of Our Employees to Be a Webmaster We should hire or retrain one of our employees to be the webmaster of the site. 'We need someone who is working on the site daily and making regular updates. Being the webmaster for the site should be this employee’s job description. Step Four: User-Test the New Website with Our Customers and Salespeople Once we have created a new version of the website, we should user—test it with our customers and salespeople. Perhaps we could pay some of our customers to try out the site and show us where it could be improved. Our salespeople will certainly give us plenty of feedback. Basic Features of Proposals Figure 21.2: (continued) (continued) 605 Proposal concludes by discussing costs anti benefits of the plan. At the end of this process, we would have a fully functioning website that would save us money almost immediately. Costs and Benefits of Our Idea Renovating the website would have many advantages: - The new website will save us printing costs. We estimate that the printing costs at our company could be sliced in half— perhaps more—because our customers would be able to download our documents directly from the website, rather than ask us to send these documents to them. That’s a poten— tial savings of $300,000. - The new website will provide better service to our customers. Currently, our customers go to the website first when they have questions. By providing more information in an interac— tive format, we can cut down dramatically on calls to our customer service center. We could save up to $120,000 in per— sonnel costs and long—distance charges. - Currently our sales staff will find the website a useful tool when they have questions. When products change, salespeople will immediately see those changes reflected on the website. As a result, more sales might be generated because product infor— mation will be immediately available on—line. _I__> A quick estimate shows that a website renovation would cost us about $40,000. We would also need to shift the current webmaster’s responsibilities from part time to full time, costing us about $20,000 per year more. The savings, though, are obvious. For an initial investment of $60,000 and a yearly investment of $20,000 thereafter, we will minimally save about $400,000 a year. Thank you for giving us this opportunity to present our ideas. If you would like to talk with us about this proposal, please call me at 8—1204, or you can e—mail me at [email protected] Chapter 21 Proposals Figure 21.2: (continued) Another kind of proposal is the grant proposal. Researchers and nonprofit organi- zations prepare grant proposals to obtain funding for their projects. For example, one of the major funding sources for grants in science and technology is the National Science Foundation (NSF). Through its website, the NSF offers funding opportunities for scientific research (Figure 21.3) The National Science Foundation Home Page US NSF — National Science Foundation '74 A Timing-34353041,! WWW 7 ' 'Cl' _ ksr Web ski? __v_§ National Science Foundation iv, r f n l (1 Recent research funded by the NSF .\ For the ammun & blur Hmn (’(Cinlnunlty Q) mu running Upporluudms 3 mm mer Dm- Dan»; K: W, \ " Rel [Seleu One _'_l 9/ {awsfiw .M _.ay......~-s__. Select 3J9) (132: One 2) Read \mwns [gov Source: National Science Foundation, http://www.nsfigov/indeXJsp. Planning and Researching Proposals Because proposals are difficult to write, it is important that you follow a reliable writ— ing process that will help you develop your proposal’s content, organization, style, and design. An important first step in this process is to start with a planning and re— searching phase. During this phase, you will define the rhetorical situation and start collecting the content for the proposal. Planning and Researching Proposals Figure 21.3: The National Science Foundation (NSF) website offers information on grant opportunities. The home page, shown here, discusses some of the recent research projects that have received grants. Examples of funded projects For more help on defining need-to-know information, go to Chapter 7, page 163. To read more about defining your purpose, go to Chapter 2, page 21. 608 Planning A good way to start planning your proposal is to analyze the situations in which it will be used. Begin by answering the Five-W and How Questions: Who will be able to say yes to my ideas, and what are their characteristics? Why is this proposal being written? What information do the readers need to make a decision? Where will the proposal be used? When will the proposal be used? How will the proposal be used? Once you have answered these questions, you are ready to start thinking in-depth about your proposals subject, purpose, readers, and context of use. To begin this analysis, open a new document on your computer and type in your understanding of the following issues: Si'lilliC’l‘ Define exactly what your proposal is about. Where are the boundaries of the subject? What information do your readers expect you to include in the pro- posal? What need-to—know information must readers have if they are going to say yes to your ideas? l’l ‘RPOSE Clearly state the purpose of your proposal in one sentence. What should the proposal achieve? What do you want the proposal to do? By stating your purpose in one sentence, you will focus your writing efforts while making it easier for readers to understand what you are trying to accomplish. Some key words for your purpose statement might include the following action verbs: to persuade to present to convince to propose to provide to ofi‘er to describe to suggest to argue for to recommend to advocate to support A purpose statement might look something like this: The purpose of this proposal is to recommend that our company change its manufacturing process to include more automation. In this proposal, our aim is to persuade the state of North Carolina to develop a multimodal approach to protect itself from stronger hurricanes, which are on the horizon. R l:I.\Dl'«1RS More than any other kind of document, proposals require you to fully un— derstand your readers and anticipate their needs, values, and attitudes. Primary readers (action takers) are the people who can say yes to your ideas. They need good reasons and solid evidence. They also hold values and Chapter 21 o Proposals 0 o» «‘33» Q Liana; attitudes that will shape how they interpret your ideas. Meanwhile, keep in mind that economic issues are always important to primary readers, so make sure you consider any money—related issues that might influence them. Secondary readers (advisors) are usually experts in your field. They won’t be the people who say yes to your proposal, but their opinions will be highly valued by your proposal’s primary readersYou need to satisfy these advisors by offering enough technical information to demonstrate your un- derstanding of the current situation and the soundness of your project. Tertiary readers (evaluators) can be just about anyone else who might have an interest in the project. These readers might include lawwers, journalists, and community activists, among others.You need to anticipate these read— ers’ concerns, especially because tertiary readers can often undermine the project if you are not careful. Gatekeepers (supervisors) are the people at your own company who will need to look over your proposal before it is sent out.Y0ur immediate super- visor is a gatekeeper, but you will likely also need to let other gatekeepers, like the company’s accountants, lawyers, and technical advisors, look over the proposal before it is sent. (';()N’l‘liXT ()l“ l'SlC The document’s context of use will also greatly influence how your readers will interpret the ideas in your proposal. Physical context concerns the places your readers may read or use your proposal. Will readers look over your proposal at their desks, on then lap- tops, or in a meeting? Where will they discuss it? Economic context involves the financial issues that will shape readers’ re— sponses to your ideas. How much money is available for the project? What economic trends will shape how your readers perceive the project? What are the financial limitations of the project? Ethical context involves the ethical decisions that you and your readers will need to make. Where does the proposal touch on ethical issues? How might these ethical issues be resolved so they don’t undermine the project? What are the legal issues involved with the proposal? Political context concerns the people your proposal will affect. Who stands to gain or lose if your proposal is accepted? How will the proposal change relationships that are already in place? Would any larger political trends shape how the proposal is written or interpreted? Something to keep in mind is that proposals, especially external proposals, are de facto legal contracts. They are legal documents that can be brought into court if a dispute occurs. So, you need to make sure that everything you say in the proposal 1s truthful and sincere, because the proposal may be used in a court case to prove (or disprove) that your company completed the promised work to the level proposed. If you are working with a team, it is especially important that all team members agree up front about the rhetorical situation. If all the team members start out with the same understanding of the rhetorical situation, you will avoid some of the all-too— typical misunderstandings that occur as proposals are written. Planning and Researching Proposals For more strategies for analyzing your readers, see Chapter 3, page 40. mil- ‘ For more help ‘ defining the . context of use, i turn to Chapter 3, page 49. 609 Save your notes about the subject, purpose, readers, and context of use. They will help you and your team stay on task as you begin drafting your proposal. In fact, a helpful practice is to print out your notes and tack them to the wall behind your computer. That way, your analysis will keep you focused on your subject, purpose, readers, and con- text in which your proposal will be used. Researching After defining your proposal’s rhetorical situation, you should start collecting and. creating the content of your document (Figure 21.4). Chapter 7 of this book describes research methods in detail, so they won’t be fully described here. However, here are some research strategies that are especially applicable to writing proposals: Doing Research on Your Subject Internet research print sources Do background research causes of problem Identify causes and effects effects of . I _ problem Find Similar proposals _ potenial prevrous solutions attempts Researching for a Proposal company files D0 BACKGROL‘M) RESEARCH The key to writing a persuasive proposal is to hilly understand the problem you are trying to solve. First, you might go to the internet to find as much information about your subject as you can. Second, locate punt. . sources, like books, reports, news articles, and brochures, on your subject. ThlI‘d, m- terview, survey, and observe people who have a stake in the plan or pr0ject you are developing. Find out their Views. ASK SL‘BllCCl‘ .\l.\'l”l‘lCR ICXPER'IS (SHES) Spend time intervieng experts who know a great amount about your subject. They can probably give you insight into the problem you are trying to solve and suggest some potential solutions. They nught also tell you what has worked (and not worked) in the past. Chapter 21 Proposals Figure 21.4: A logical map, like this one, might help you research your subject from a variety of directions. When researching the background of a proposal, you should collect as much information as possible. [HY .\'l"’I‘I-j.\"l'1()\TO (,1\1’SIZS ,\\D l-il-‘l-‘l-ZtJl's All problems have causes, and all causes create effects. In your observations of the problem, try to identify the causes that are behind that problem. Then, try to identify some of the effects of the problem. FIND SIMILAR PROPOSALS On the Internet or at your workplace, you can proba— bly locate proposals that have dealt with similar problems in the past. These sam- ples can help you frame the problem and better understand the causes and effects. They might also give you some insight into how similar problems have been solved in the past. Take Note To avoid plagiarism or copyright violations, use sample proposals for guid- ance only. When you write your own proposal, you will need to develop your own words and ideas. The only exception to this rule is if your company owns the document you are using as a model. (:()I.l,.l-;(;’l‘ VISL'MS Proposals are persuasive documents, so they often include plenty of graphics, like photographs, charts, illustrations, and graphs. Collect any materials, data, and information that will help you add a visual quality to your pro— posal. If appropriate, you might use a digital camera to take pictures to be added to the document. Organizing and Drafting Proposals Writing the first draft of a proposal is always difficult. Why? Proposals descn'be the future—a future that you are trying to envision for your readers and yourself. Consequently, you will need to use your imagination to help create and describe the future you have in mind. A good way to draft your proposal is to write it one section at a time. Think of the proposal as four or five separate mini-documents that could stand alone. When you finish drafting one section, move on to the next. Writing the Introduction As with all documents, the proposal’s introduction sets a context, or framework, for the body of the document. A proposal’s introduction will usually include up to six moves: Move 1: Define the subject. Move 2: State the purpose. Move 3: State the main point. Move 4: Stress the importance of the subject. Move 5: Offer background information on the subject. Move 6: Forecast the organization of the document. ., - r Organizing and r, : , v Drafting Proposals To learn more about doing research, turn to Chapter 7, page 146. Reading a Request for Proposals (RF P) A solicited proposal usually responds to a request for proposal (RFP)—an advertise- ment written by a client who has work available. These advertisements are typically written in highly technical language, so a first step in the proposal—writing process is to figure out what the client needs. RFPs are also called information for bids requests for quotes (RFQs), requests for applications (RFAs) (RFOs). To interpret an RFP, use the Five-W and How Questions to break it down into its basic elements. For example, consider the synopsis of the RFP in Figure A. What are some answers to the who question in this advertisement? Who is the client? Who is qualified to bid for the project? Who are the other people involved? Who is the point of contact (POC) who can answer your questions? Sample RFO NASA/Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston Texas, 77058-3696 A -- LONG-LlFE SPACE SHUTTLE VERNIEFt THFiUSTER SOL 9-BH13~67-01-17P POC Mary F. Thomas, Contract Specialist, Phone (281) 483-8828, Fax (281) 244-5337, Email mary.f.thomas1 @jsc.nasa.gov -- Keith D. Hutto, Contracting Officer, Phone (281) 483-4165, Fax (281) 244-5337, Email keith.d.huttoi @jsc.nasa.gov WEB: Click here for the latest information about this notice, http://nais.msfc.nasa.gov/cgi- bin/EPS/ bizops.cgi?gr=D&pin=73#9-BH13-67-0 01-17P. E-MAIL: Mary F. Thomas, [email protected] NASA/JSC plans to issue a Request for Offer (RFO) to develop technology for a long life thruster using mono-methyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide that extends operating life to 300,000 seconds. The technology must eliminate coatings that can chip off and cause premature chamber failure and replacement. The deliverable shall be a report which details the development, analysis, and results of the testing. As an option in the contract, the vendor shall deliver a 25 Ibf thrust chamber assembly to the NASA White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico. The Government does not intend to acquire a commercial item using FAR Part 12. See Note 26. The NAlCS Code and Size Standard are 541710 and 1,000 employees, respectively. The DPAS Rating for this procurement is DO-CQ. The provisions and clauses in the RFC and model contract are those in effect through FAC 97-25. All qualified responsible sources may submit an offer which shall be considered by the agency. The anticipated release date of the RFC is on or about June 25, 2001 with an anticipated offer due date of on or about July 26, 2001. An ombudsman has been appointed -- See NASA Specific Note The solicitation and any documents related to this procurement will be available over the Internet. These documents will be in Microsoft Office 97 format and will reside on a World Wide Web (WWW) server, which may be accessed using a WWW browser application. The Internet site, or URL, for the NASA/JSC Business Opportunities home page is http:// nais.msfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/EPS/bizops.cgi?gr=C&pin=73 Prospective offerors shall notify this office of their intent to submit an offer. It is the offeror's responsibility to monitor the internet site for the release of the solicitation and amendments (if any). Potential offerors will be responsible for downloading their own copy of the solicitation and amendments (if any). Any referenced notes can be viewed at the following URL: http:// genesis.gstc.nasa.gov/nasanote.htm| Posted 06/11/01 (D- SN500564). (0162) (IFBs), , and requests for offers Figure A: Reading an RFO can be difficult. The Five-W and How Questions can help you sort out the information, so you can better interpret it. This figure shows an advertisement for an upcoming RFO from NASA. Bidders can request the full RFO when it is available. On your computer screen, type in your answers to these kinds of who—related questions. Then, use the what, where, and when questions to help you sort out the other elements of the RFP. \Vhat does the client want? Where will the work be done? When does the project need to be completed? Your computer screen will soon fill up with information that was drawn from the RF P. . You will notice that the why and how questions are rarely answered m an RFP. The why question is especially difficult to answer, but you need to find answer to this question before writing your proposal. Specifically, why does the client need someone to do the project? Initially, you can probably make some strateglc guesses about why the client put the project out for bid. Then, using the Internet, the library, and your industry contacts, you should confirm whether your guesses are correct. The how question is what your proposal is supposed to answer for the chent. In your proposal, you will describe in detail how you, your team, or your company Wlll do the work advertised in the RF P. Nevertheless, the client may give you hints Lift the RFP about what kinds of solutions or plans will likely be acceptable. Read the RFP closely for any hint about how the client would like the how question answered. Again, look at the RFP synopsis in Figure A. Why do you think the client wants someone to handle this project? How might you and your company help the client solve their problem? I When you have finished answering the Five—W and How Questions, you should have a much better grasp of the RFP, including what the clients are looking for. These moves can be made in just about any order, depending on your proposal, and they are not all required. Minimally, your proposal’s introduction should clearly identify your subject, purpose, and main point. The other three moves are helpful, but they are optional. Figure 21.5 shows a sample introduction that uses all s1X moves. Your proposal’s introduction should be concise. Usually introductions for proposals run about one to three paragraphs. Descn'bing the Current Situation The aim of the current situation section—sometimes called the background section— is to define the problem your plan will solve. In this section, you should help read— ers understand the current situation by clearly defining the problem, its causes, and its effects. . . You should accomplish three things in this section of the proposal: - Define and describe the problem. 0 Discuss the causes of the problem. 0 Discuss the effects of the problem if nothing is done. For example, let us say you are writing a proposal to improve safety at your college or workplaceYour current situation section would first define the problem by prov— ing there is a lack of safety and showing its seriousness. Then, it would discuss the causes and effects of that problem. For additional help on writing introductions, see Chapter 8, page 187. ' , , ,7. , . , - , . . 1 , Organizing and Chapter 21 ' ‘ . ’l j g . t. ., ' Drafting Proposals Proposals a - .. , . v .. . ., ., g : ' ‘ ' INtrOdUCtion to a Proposal MAPPING 0LT ‘1‘] ll: Sl'l'l'lTlON Logical mapping is a helpful technique for develop— in our argument in this section. Here are some steps you can follow to map out i Figure 21.5: hg 3’ t t. i This introduction t 9 C011 en - i l ngssseilislxa 1. Write the problem in the middle of your screen or piece of paper. Put a result, it is circle around the problem. somewhat ‘ . 1 length)“ 2. Write down the two to five major causes of that problem. Circle them, and Growth and Flexibility With treatise themtothe 3 prepares readers . ' ' d h ‘ se, treatin each to understand the 3. Write down some minor causes aroun eac major cau g information in major cause as a separate problem of its own. Circle the minor causes and connect them to the ma'or causes. A Proposal to Norlhside Design 33pr? of the J O I u . . ' .6 illustrates how our lo ical ma for the current Situation section Founded in 1979, Northside Design is one of the classic entrepreneurial I Flgure Y g p Offers success stories in architecture. Today, this company is one of the g might look. ‘ background leading architectural firms in the Chicago market with over 50 million l . f t. dollars in annual revenue. With growth, however, comes growing pains, In orma Ion ' and Northside now faces an important decision about how it will Defines the 1 manageits grmvtliint‘henearfiiture. Therightdecisioncouldleadto subject out the Current Situation 3 i . more market share, increased sales, and even more prominence in the I architectural field. However, Northside also needs to safeguard itself Figure 21.6! i Stresses the 4‘» _ against over-extension in case the Chicago construction market i importance of Logical mapping unexpectedly begins to recedes helps you figure the subject. out what caused 5 To help you make the right decision, this proposal offers an innovative States the the pr0b|em that s 2231?: psii'fds f0 strategy that will support your firm’s growth while maintaining its Purpose Of the YOU are trying to i: ago/net over— flexibility. Specifically, we propose Northside implement a proposal _ solve fifiegilon 1'” “759 telecommuting network that allows selected employees to work a few ' (gismggggmmef days each week at home. Telecommuting will provide your company major cause major cause unerpecfedly I with the office space it needs to continue growing Meanwhile, this ' beg’m to recede' approach will avoid a large investment in new facilities and disruption States the = to the company’s current operations. mam pomt- l l l H ‘ ‘ In this proposal, we will first discuss the results of our research into : 3 Northside’s office space needs. Second, we will offer a plan for using a Forecasts the fi‘» telecommuting network to free up more space at Northside’s current body of the office. Third, we will review Insight Systems’ qualifications to assist Northside with its move into the world of telecommuting And finally, proposal. . We Will go over some of the costs and advantages of our plan 6 14 Chapter 21 “0'9 ’43:» 1 ' Organizing and 6 1 5 Proposals - ¢> _, . ‘ Drafting Proposals “i . DRAIVI'IXGTl'lE (:i'RRiiX'i‘ sri‘itx'riox Sizc'i'iox Your logical map of the current sit- Example current s'tuat'on seam" \vorkspaces that enhance business activities. - . j uation should help you define the basic content of this section. Now you are ready to Figure 21.7: The 1 turn your map into paragraphs and sentences. To begin, the current situation section currtent situlagon , . . . sec ion me u es w should i closm : . ii include an opemng, a bod), and a g an Opemngy a ‘. it Opening—Identify and define the problem you will describe. body, and a i ‘ . . The Office Space Needs at Norihside closmg. The i , Body—Discuss the causes of the problem, showmg how these causes Before describing “pm 1mg fimmgmghtsome 0mm factors that causes of the ‘ , brought about the pI‘ObleIH. created the current office space shortage at Northside. There are three problem are i . . . . an is find' itselfwith limited office spaw. discussed mainl ' Closmg—Discuss the efi‘ects of not domg anything about the problem. The Opening reasons your comp y mg in the bedy y l i i . . . - ' First, Northside Design has grown dramatically since its founding ara ra hS’ While . . g The length of the current Situation section depends donates the m1979‘Atflmfim’ym company employed five whim and phe egffeigts are I} i , é Th c t $1 t_ on your readers’ familiarity with the problem. If readers Pro em- fifteen staffmembers. So, the award-winning design ofyour office usually discussed ' l i . 7 ha 1' ‘ l > e "We" I "a '0“ are new to the subiect, then several paragraphs or even 19ftt’lent’ “from” forafl .employees‘ T.°day’.y°.m.fm S m ‘e at the end of the i i i I... - . e - The architects and twenty stat} members usmg this limited space. I i > 0 Define and describe the pages nught be required. If they fully understand the discusses the section. ‘ l . . a l i . l problem. problem already, maybe only a paragraph or two are , ses of the - Second, advances in architectural practices have createdaneed for l 1 i n - ~ . can more e ‘ ment Equipment like CAD systems, plotters, and large- l i i 0 Discuss the ca fth needed The sam le text m F1 ure 21 7 demonstrates qmp - i l i i '- uses 0 e I . p _ g I ' _ problem. format copiers, are now using up precrous floor space, further i“ . 5 problem. how tlus section might be organized. restricting the limitcdwork area available. i ‘ l . . . . . l 0 DIS uss ' ‘ Fi ure 21.7 shows onl one OSSible attem. The _ A 1 l i i n I C the effects If nOthmg g . . . y p . p . n ffi The office space shortage faced by Northside is a symptom oftlie 1 , l ._ "1 IS done about the problem. current Situation section can be organized many differ- 53033986215095; fm,ssuccess and gm“,ng influence,“ the Chicago market'Now’ the i I , l . i ent ways. What is important is that the section define grim challenge facedby Northside is to free up office space without P l l ‘ . . ' ' ‘ ' ' ' a a ‘ . l the problem and discuss its causes and effects. a. I . firm‘ssuccess and. d‘SmP'mg CU‘TEH‘PmJeC‘S “Jam’d‘mo fume 3‘“ 1 t l “‘6 c 05mg growing influence in i l l discusses the "’9 Ehrifago Left unaddressed, however, this lack of office spar» may create some ' l E ma] 9 further problems in the near future. Restrictive office space tends to ' ' effects of the _ . . . u q l i , . . . . ' undermine employee morale, leading to lower productivny and overa ‘ l l DCSCl’lblllg the P 1'0‘] ect Plan i’lomem' employee discomfort (Spenser Institute Study, 1999). Another problem 9; l i l . . . is that the workspace will also become increasingly inefficient, wasting ‘ i it i A proposal’s pI‘OJeCt plan section offers a step—by—step method for solVing the problem. \ employees, time, while causing mmormjmies to pmomelwd (image l ‘ Your goal is to tell your readers how you would like to handle the problem and why > to equipment Acramped office also presents abadirfrlinaseto clients, I ' ‘ ' " 'd'd‘tslfd" ti b you Would handle 1t that way. In thlS SECUOH, you should— especially Since NorthSi epn esr e on estgmng ic ona i .i. . 0 Identify the solution. i ' State the objectives of the plan. ' "‘ I. ' Describe the plan’s major and minor steps. l l ‘ 0 Identify the deliverables or outcomes. E for the proposal, which you wrote during the planning phase. Now, imagine a solu— . ‘1 l tion that might achieve that purpose. Perhaps you already have a solution in mind. If i i not, brainstorm with your team members to determine what kinds of solutions might l ' ‘ i As you begin drafting this section, look back at your original purpose statement I , solve the problem you described in the current situation section. Take Note Let yourself be creative and innovative while forming the project plan. ; Consider even the most far-fetched ideas. There are often several ways to solve any given i l ‘ problem. You never know the best solution until you have considered them all. ' , Organizing and Chapter 21 0’9 "3;. . ' '* * 1, Drafting Proposals Proposals “.48). " V " ‘1 I V . 7 :l' i J in .. , ;: ' it: t . ,. i ‘ ‘ \L\PIJl.\'G ()I 'l' THE PROIEL'I' Pl.;\.\ When you have identified a possible solution, j l ' Th P . t H tives so the readers can see what goals your plan is striving ll '1 you can again use logical mapping to turn your idea into a plan: 9 r 019° an I to achieve. 0 Identify the solution. 0 State the objectives of the plan. 0 Describe the plan’s major and minor steps. . . . . . Identify the deliverables Closmg—Summanze the final delzverables, or outcomes, of I l , , . . . your plan. The deliverables are the goods and services that - mm t . . . . . . . i l . ‘ 3' gum diam the t thor Siepfhrequgedsiosscmeve eaCh maJor Step' CHde ; or w comes you Will prov1de when the pr0ject is finished. Tell the readers I em an connec em 0 e major e . . ‘ 1 What the end results of your plan Will be. i i i As shown in Figure 21.8, your map should illustrate the basic steps of your plan. Body—Walk the readers through your plan step—by—step. Address each major step separately, discussing the minor steps needed to achieve that major step. It is also helpful to tell readers why each major and minor step is needed. 1. Write your solution in the middle of your screen or a sheet of paper. Circle l i if this solution. 2. Write down the two to five major steps needed to achieve that solution. Circle them and connect them to the solution. a > f.‘ > Z n l'l'l Take Note Deliverables should be clearly identified so readers know what they will be receiving for their investment in your ideas. Mapping Oat a ProjeCt Plan As shown in Figure 21.9, the project plan section balances the plan’s steps with Figure 213; reasons why these steps are needed. Logical mapping In most proposals, the project plan is the longest section of the document. This Wi” “em you section needs to clearly describe your plan. Moreover, it needs to give your readers figure out how to solve the good reasons to believe your plan will work, while offering specific outcomes or problem_ in a results (deliverables). map, like the one major step major step shown here, you can visualize your .. . . t. . entire plan by Describmg Qualifications Writing out the The qualifications section presents the credentials of your team or company, striving major and minor steps. to prove that you are qualified to carry out the project plan. Minimally, the aim of the qualifications section is to show that your team or company is able to do the work. Ideally, however, you also want to prove that your team or company is best qualified to handle the project. As you begin drafting this section, keep the follong saying in mind: What makes you different makes you attractive. In other words, pay attention to the qualities that make your team or company different from your competitors. What are your com- pany’s strengths? What makes you better than the others? In the qualifications section, you do not need to discuss every aspect of your team or company. Rather, you should offer just enough information to demonstrate that your team or your company is best qualified and able to handle the proposed project. A typical qualifications section offers information on three aspects of your team or company: ‘ l ' l , . i i ‘ I 3 major step major step I “ i I . t ‘ Description of personnel—Short biographies of managers who will be in— ‘ ‘ volved in the project; demographic information on the company’s work- . j l)R.\l~"l‘l}{(} '1‘] ll: PROJECT Pl ..\\' Siccriox‘ Your project plan section should have an forceidefmptlofl 0f support staff- ' . . . ‘ opening, a body, and a closing. This section will describe step-by—step how you will Description of organization—I Corporate niiss1on, philosophy, and history of r i ‘ achieve your project’s purpose, 3116 company; corporate facflities and equipment; orgamzational structure of I l . Opening—Identify your overall solution to the problemYou can even give 6 (iompany‘ _ i i . I . i 1 your pjan a name to make it sound more r331 (egg the “Restore Central Prev10us experience—Past andcurrent clients; a list of sinnlar pr0jects that i l j Campus Project”).Your opening might also include a list of project objec— have been completed; Case StUdJCS that describe past PTOJBCtS- l Chapter 21 Organizing and Proposals Drafting Proposals l l V I . 1 Project Plan Section Figure 21 9_ , . . l _ continued ,l Figure 21.9: ( ) 5 An effective 1 project plan ii ; l‘ section includes In this phase, our goal will be to collect as much information as m i . i an Opening, a :ssiblfe; so the transition to telecommunication will be smooth and r r Our Plan: Flexibility and Telecommuting body, and a SS 3' ee' ‘ l e I . . , , . . . closing. The , F. m d . ‘ . ' Managing Northsrde 5 limited office spam requires a solution . t t irst we w conduct surveys of your employees to etermrne f. ; ‘ that allows the company to grow but does not sacrifice financial Openmg a 93 which people might be willing and able to telecommute. These ‘ ' ‘ flexibility, Therefore, we believe a successful solution must meet the SOIUtlon and surveys will tell us about their work habits and the way in which a " r ‘ the following objectives: offers some telecommuting network could be adapted to their individual needs, . I w , . . g . . , . objectives. The - _ I Ob-ectives . mummze dlbmpuon to Non]de 5 current Operanom body wa|ks the ' Second, we will interview Northside’s management. These lVlIHOI’ steps 3 J ' mHIUlee COSTS) Preserflg NOFT-llslde 5 {1113110181 re a d ers th rough interwews \Vill help us tailor the telecommuting network to your ‘ flexmfll‘ty the plan's Steps corporate culture and your managers‘ specific needs. [ l 1 0 retaniNorthside’s current office on Michigan Avenue The closing ' I _ _ _ r r I I _ ‘ _ _ I ° Third, we Will conduct empirical studies to help us understand the i l - foster a dyiiam1cworkplace that Will be appealuig to Identifies the office dynamics at Northside. These empirical studies will allow us i Ntmhsldys architects and Staff' major to replicate those office dynamics in a virtual environment. , _ . ~deliverables of Our Ola/actives: To meet mes? Objecuveé’ mSIght SyStems pmposes PO , the plan . We estimate this phase will require thirty days to complete At the end 1 t - minimize disruption conabofagamfil NiMhiglde to devemp 2: talecouimumcauon D9l lVe ra bles of that time period, we will submit a report to you in which we discuss ‘ ; ll . minimize com network ta OW“ Se wted employe“ to work at home the findings of our surveys, interviews, and empirical studies. In this i . I ; - retain Normside’s _ . 4 I report we will also describe the various telecommuting options 1 CW9” Office The pr’mary adv”??? 0f telecommumg ‘5 that It flags up Officle available and recommend the option that best suits your needs : I foster a dynamic space for the remaining employees who need to work in the main 8 I t workplace ‘ ‘ a ' 15 ‘ l» ' i' ’ 0 u ion to . . I office ‘Telecommuting \Vlll a o aVOId‘OVerefienCllng Northside 5 Phase Two: Designing a Computer Network for Ma'or Ste I financral resources, so the firm can quickly react to the crests and problem Telecommuting l p Using our findings from Phase One, we will then work with , Our plan will be implemented in four major phases, First, we Northside’s management to design a telecommuting program that fits l . ‘ will study Nonliside‘s telecommuting options. Second, we will the specific needs of the firm. i r 1 design a local area network (LAN) that will allow selected employees to telecommute from a home office. Third, we will i i valleys of the market. l l l The telecommunication network would be designed for maximum r - I ‘ tram Nomide’s employees in telecommuting basics. And flexibility. We would begin by creating a LAN that would be connected ' ‘ l ‘ finally, we will assess the success of the telecommuting program Y to a main server and a back-up server at Northside’s main office (See _ i ll . after it has been implemented Figure 1), These sewers would be connected through an ethernet to all M l “or steps i l iii-office workstations and peripherals (plotters, CAD systems, copiers, ' fax machines, etc). Phase One: Analyzing Norfhside's Telecommuting Needs . Northside’s employees and management The results of this analysis main server, other workstations, and peripherals. Using cable modems, r, ‘ , i will allow us to work closely with Nor‘iliside’s management to develop employees working at home or remote sites will connect to Northside’s I a telecommuting program that fits the unique demands of a dynamic LAN through a communication server and a router. The communication will allow your telecommuting employees to access peripherals, like . r ‘ , i We will start out by analyzing the specific workplace requirements of The etheniet would allow each workstation to communicate with the i . . l architecture firm. server Will manage the modem connections. The router, meanwhile, | l i (continued) ‘ 6 , Chapter 21 i ' ' . Organizing and Proposals Drafting Proposals 1 ‘1 ‘ [— Figure 21.9: ‘ r ' ‘I Figure 21.9: 1 I (continued) (continued) - l ‘l‘ the plotters and-copiers, through the ethernet The router will also allow Overall: the advantage of this LAN design is that Numismats , l ‘ l Northside’s main office to connect easrly wtth future branch offices and telecommuting employees will have access to an the equipment and l” Emma Clienm’ Serviws available in the main office, Meanwhile even travelli \ ll : _ I 4 _ employees who are visiting clients will be able to easily tap iniiig the D I- i i To ensure the security of the LAN , we \Vlll equip the network With the LAN from their laptop computers e we ra bles : most advanwd security hardware and software available. The router I ‘ t . (hardware) will be Programmed to serve as a “firewall” against ‘ Phase Three: Training Norihside’s Employees < l— ‘ . ' - 1 intruders. We will also install the most advanced encryption and Virus I I . l i ‘ sofiware available to protect your employees’ transmissions. Experience has shown us that employees adapt qurckly to i . telecommuting. Initially, though, we would need to n'ain them how to . ‘ Figure 1:The Local Area Network access and use the LAN from workstations inside and outside the r _ office, To fully train your employees in telecommuting basis, we would need two afternoons (eight hours). We will show them how to communicate through the network and access peripherals at the main office, The training will also include time management strategies to help your employees adjust to working outside the office. We have found that - time management training helps employees work more efficiently at major Step home—often more efficiently than they work in the office. Sewer Ccpler For Workstations i. | i l Ememe } W I: IVl'nor steps ‘ l . . l‘ I I— l l i Y i The graphic 95$? Plotter Workstations ‘ l ‘ Illustrates a I l ‘ complex I E ii concept. %\—> r i i _ _ Otha Networks Insight Systems maintains a 24-hour helpline that your employees can call if they have any questions about using the LAN. Also, our website contains helpful information on improving efficiency through telecommuting. Phase Four: Assessing the Telecommuting Program To ensure the effectiveness of the teleconunuting network, we will regularly survey and interview your managers and employees to solicit their reactions and suggestions for improvements. These surveys and ‘ interviews will be conducted every three months for two years. Note: A Wireless Network could be Installed here. We will be particularly interested in measuring employee satisfaction with telecommuting and we will measure whether they believe their efficiency has increased since they began working at home through the LAN . The resulLs of these assessments will help us fine—tune the LAN to your employees’ needs. COflllTllJnlCOlIOn Serve external/y, Northside that discusses our findings, At the end of the two—year period, we will submit a full report that analyzes our overall findings and l makes suggestions for improving the telecommuting program in the r After each thre -mo th surve , \ re will submit a ro ress re on: to ' ‘ Figure I: An efhernef allows you to interconnect the office internally and e 11 y ‘ P g P l i future. Chapter 21 i Organizing and Proposals - Drafting Proposals The opening paragraph Figure 21.10 shows a sample qualifications section that includes these three kinds of information about qualifications. Pay attention to how this section does more describe the company—it makes an argument that the bidders are uniquely qualified to handle the project. Qualifications Section When we complete this plan, Northside Design will have a fully functional telecommuting network that will allow selected employees to work from home. You should see an immediate improvement in productivity and morale. Meanwhile, you will be able to stay financially flexible to compete in the Chicago architectural market Qualifications at Insight Systems At Insight Systems, we know this moment is a pivotal one for Northside Design. To preserve and expand in market share, makes a , Northside needs to grow, but it cannot risk overextending itself claim that the financially. For these reasons, Insight Systems is uniquely qualifications section will support. 624 qualified to handle this project, because we provide flexible, low— cost telecommuting networks that help growing companies stay responsive to shifts in their industry. Management and Labor With over seventy combined years in the industry, our management team offers the insight and responsiveness required to handle your complex growth needs. (The resumes of our management team are included in Appendix B). Hanna Gibbons, our CEO, has been working in the telecommuting industry for over 20 years. Afier she graduated from MIT with a PhD. in computer SCienoe, she worked at Krayson International as a ‘With over seventy combined years in the industry, our management team Offers Insight and systems designer. Ten years later, she had worked her way up to responsiveness d, Vice President in charge of Krayson’s Telecommuting Division In Lfizjgfnfglgfn a 1993, Dr. Gibbons took over as CEO of Insight Systems. Since Q’OV/m new-i ' then, Dr. Gibbons has built this company into a major industry leader with gross sales of $15 million per year. Frank RoberLs, Chief Engineer at Insight Systems, has 30 years of experience in the networked computer field He began his career at Brindle Labs, where he worked on artificial intelligence systems using analog computer networks. In 1985, he joined the Insight Systems team, bringing his unique understanding of networking to our team. Frank is very detail oriented, often working long hours to ensure that each computer network meets each client’s exact specifications and needs. Chapter 21 Proposals Figure 21.10: An effective qualifications section shows why your team or company is qualified, or the best qualified, to handle a project. In this sample, notice how the section makes a clean argument by appealing to experience. Description of personnel Lisa Miller, Insight System’s Senior Computer Engineer, has successfully led the implementation of tlu'rty-tliree telecommuting systems in companies throughout the United States, Eaming her computer science degree at Iowa State, Lisa has won numerous awards for her innovative approach to computer networking. She believes that clear communication is the best way to meet her clients’ needs. Our management is supported by one of most advanced teams of high technology employees. Insight Systems employs twenty of the brightest engineers and technicians in the telecommunications industry. We have aggressively recniited our employees from the most advanced universities in the United States, including Stanford, MIT, Illinois, Iowa State, New Mexico, and Syracuse. Several of our engineers have been with Insight Systems since it was founded Corporate History and Facilities Insight Systems has been a leader in the telecommuting industry from the beginning. In 1975, the company was founded by John Temple, a pioneer in the networking field Since then, Insight Systems has followed Dr. Temple’s simple belief that computer-age workplaces should give people the freedom to be creative. “Inslgh, sysfems Recently, Insight Systems earned the coveted “100 Companies to eprned the coveted Watch” designation from Business Outlook Magazine (May 2004). The ngcfifilefiggjig company has worked with large and small companies, from Vedder [mm Business Aerospace to the Cedar Rapids Museum of Fine Arts, to create Omwo" Mugozmev‘ telecommuting options for companies that want to keep costs down and productivity high. Insight Systems’ Naperville office has been called “a prototype workspace for the information age.” (Gibson ’3 Computer Weekly, May 2000). With advanced LAN systems in place, only ten of Insight System’s fifty employees actually work in the office. Most of Insight Systems’ employees telecommute from home or on the road Experience You Can Trust Our background and experience gives us the ability to help Northside manage its needs for a more efficient, dynamic office space. Our key to success is innovation, flexibility, and efficiency. You should never underestimate the importance of the qualifications section in a proposal. In the end, your readers will not accept the proposal if they do not believe that your team or company has the personnel, facilities, or experience to do the work. In this section, your job is to persuade them that you are uniquely or best qualified to handle the project. «° ’3' . °°- ""> Organizing and Drafting Proposals Figure 21.10: (continued) Description of organization Costs and Benefits Section Costs and Benefits l The costs and benefits section summarizes the advantages of saying yes to the pro- . “ posal while also telling readers how much the project will cost. ‘ Start out this section by making an obvious transition. Say something like,“Let us conclude by summarizing the costs and benefits of our plan.” This kind of transition Figure 21.11: The costs and benefits section, as well as the l l l l The Plan’s Benefits and Project Costs conclusion are i l l 1 will wake up your readers, because they will realize that you are going to be telling 3 them the most important points in the proposal. proposal’s Early in this section, tell them the costs. A good strategy for handling expenses is To conclude, mus summafizfi the advantages dour pkmmd discuss shown here. To r to simply state the costs up front without apology or a sales pitch. the 908m Our pmliminaw research shows rim Northside Design will end on a strong contuiue to be a leader in the Chicago market The strong economy note, the costs ii “ Restate the C0 1 ‘ ' ’ ' ' ' . . . . . Up Ed With Nonliside s award-\qu a d ' ‘ A t hIS renovation Wlli cost 287 000. I - ma es'gns mu Duly Increase me I S Shown In our bUdge I t s I solutlon I a demand for your serVices. At Insight Systems, we believe the best way :ggtizineflts to manage Northside’s growth is to implement a telecommutii «7 i network that will allow some of the company’s employees to )6 summarizes the benefits of saying i i We anticipate that the price for retooling your manufacturing plant will be $5,683,000. telecommutc from home or oii-site. yes. Afterward, ,‘ l Immediately after this statement of the costs, you should describe the significant C t. fl ~ I benefits of saying yes to the plan. Fortunately, you already identified many of these A;.fidgfifigffgfflfifgggfe,°f“53m 1:5 “mini” “:19 COnCIUSion . . . . . . _ ’ PanWO COS anest id benefits earlier in the proposal. They appeared in two other sections: the prOJect plan $230,640. \Ve believe this investment in Nortliside’s mrmsflxn will Segdleitrjstghrdktitelie ‘ section and the Qualifications section. Prisefve “mommy’s financial flexibility, allowing you to react them the next ‘ quickly to the market’s crests and valleys, But the advantages of our L 13181150 beyond simple costs: Step- Project plan section—You identified some deliverables when you described ‘ the pI‘OJECt plan. Summanze those dehverables for the readers and discuss my, a ,elecammufing System will 011mm ewe”, WWW m continue without disruption. When the telecommuting network is the benefits of them. OurPI I 3 m d ‘ on 5 ans : rea y to go oii-line your em lo '11 ' _ I . . _ , , ,_ ,Um,fed f5 ‘ ‘ s ‘ p yees W1 Simply needto aflendtwo State the Quahfications section—When describing your team s or company s quali - it will nofghmpf four-hour naming sessmns on using the LAN. Your management costs ‘ fications, you also showed that your organization is uniquely or best gggrggggnf can the“ gradually convert selected employee:i into telecommuters. ' ' ' , . . - d 0 r 0 Emoloyee morale ‘ qualified to handle the pI‘OJCCt You can now briefly remm y ur eaders will”,me Second, emplofle morale will benefit fi'om mng the telecommuting Summarize the it network. With fewer employees at the office, there will be more benefits ‘ ‘ ‘ of the benefits of working with your company (e.g., qualified people, ‘ ‘ l high—quality products and services, superior customer service, excellent facilities) . j ' i In most cases, your discussion of the benefits should add no new content to the i l proposal. Instead, this section should summarize the important benefits you dis— cussed in earlier sections of the proposal. In Figure 21.11, for example, you will i notice that this proposal’s costs and benefits section really doesn’t add anything new ‘ ‘ to the proposal, except the cost of the project. Why should you discuss the benefits at all, especially if you already mentioned them in the proposal? There are two main reasons: - If you summarize the benefits at this point, readers will know exactly what , they are going to receive if they say yes to your ideas. ‘ ' The costs are usually a bitter pill for most readers. Just telling them the price ‘ l without reminding them of the benefits would make the price of the project 1 hard to swallow. i r At this point in the proposal, your readers are measuiing the costs of your plan against its benefits. By discussing costs and benefits at the same time, you can show them how the benefits outweigh these costs. space available for the employees who need to be in the office each “ day. Also, studies have shown that telecommuting employees not only report more job satisfaction, they also increase their productivity. the telecommuting system is in place, Nortliside will be posdioned for continued growth and leadership in the Chicago architectural market. Telecommuting will open up space at your current downtown office while maintaining the morale and productivity of your employees as your business continues to grow. (continued) Chapter 21 - : ' . i "- 5- ' ' " Proposals _ ‘= r ' ' ' -’ Organizin and Drafting Propfisals , 7 (continued) I _ The conclusmn of a proposal should be conc1se, perhaps only one or two para— graphs. To draft an effective conclusion, you should do some or all of the following: i (1) restate the proposal’s main point (the solution); (2) say thank you; (3) describe ii ‘i Thank you-for giving Insight Systems the opportulnity to work withyou Say thank you. the next Step; provide contact information. i. 15 5p {Sifitgii‘igfggofiififl3;?“ W11 comm you on Here at the end of the proposal is a good place to restate ‘ the main point of your proposal. Of course, you have already concluding a told readers your solution at least a couple of times. Tell Proposal them again. This last repetition will leave them with a clear statement of what you want to achieve. Also, you might thank your readers for their consideration of your ideas. Much like a public speaker signaling the end of i a speech by thanking listeners for their attention, you can ‘ end your proposal by thanking readers for considering your plan. Thanking your readers will end your proposal on a pos— ‘ , itive note. 1 . w Finally, when concluding, you should leave your readers i with a clear sense of what they should do when they finish ‘ i i 3 reading your proposal. Should they call you? Should they wait for you to call them? m [— Figure 21.11: Conclusion . State the next 1 i _ _ i' i i i If you have any suggestions for improving our plan or you would like step. further information about our services, please call Lisa Miller, our I ‘ i ‘ i Ofiey contaCt ————> Senior Computer Engineer, at 1800-5553864. Or, you can e-mail her ' i i l il‘ifOl’fi‘lflthiL at [email protected] 0 Restate the proposal’s main point (the solution). 0 Say thank you. 0 Describe the next step. 0 Provide contact information. HDNV'ID V 1V I I ‘ Should they set up a meeting with you? A well—written conclusion makes their next For more i i move obvious for them. information on i In Figure 21.11, for example, the conclusion has been added to the end of the wr'tmg i . ‘ . . . . . conclusmns, o i costs and benefits section. The authors thank the readers for their con51deration and to Chapter gig I ask them to call when they are finished looking over the proposal. page 202. i Using Style in Proposals i 1i ' Proposals are designed to both educate and persuade readers, so they tend to use a :i 1 mixture of plain and persuasive style. For more such as the current situation section, the project plan section, and the quali— Strategies for Plain style—Use plain style in places where description is most important, m i .r ‘ ‘ fications section. using piain and Persuasive style—Use persuasive style in places where readers are expected gazuii'ge ‘ to make decisions, such as the proposal’s introduction and the costs and Chap'ter 9, ‘ | i m benefits section. page 212. i 1 One persuasive style technique, called “setting a tone,” is particularly effective 1 i i when writing a proposal. To use logical mapping to help you set a persuasive tone, 1 follow these steps: i ‘ 1. Determine how you want your proposal to sound. Do you want it to sound H .‘ exciting, innovative, or progressive? Choose a word that best reflects the ‘ i tone you want your readers to hear as they are looking over your proposal. .i 2. Put that word in the middle of your screen or sheet of paper. Circle it. i 62 8 Chapter 21 :7 Using Style in Proposals " Proposals Mapping to Set a Tone t. I fonrvard unconven iona thinking advanced l°0king ahead . Progressive approach 0 3. Write words associated with that word around it. Circle them also. 4. Keep mapping farther out until you have filled the page or screen. Figure 21.12 shows a logical map of the word progressive. As shown in this map, you can quickly develop a set of words that are related to this word. Once you have finished mapping out the tone, you can weave these words into your proposal to create a theme. As discussed in Chapter 9 of this book, if you use these words carefully and strategically in your proposal, your readers will hear this tone as they are reading your document. But, be sure not to overuse these words. Setting a tone is like adding spices in food. Used well, the spices will give the food an interesting flavor. When overused, their flavor will be too strong. Designing Proposals Computers have changed the way proposals are designed and delivered. Not long ago, it was common for proposals to include only minimal design with sparse graph— ics. Today, desktop publishing gives you a full range of page design options, including graphics, headers and footers, columns, and photographs, among other design ele- ments. Increasingly, proposals are also being delivered in multimedia formats with video and sound. Chapter 21 .. ,- -, ,, Proposals H . "i i-|:£:x:i*“w/.l:, cutting-edge Figure 21.12: Logical mapping can help you develop a tone for your proposal. Weaving these words into a text would make the document sound "progressive." Figure 21.13, for example, shows the first page of a well—designed proposal. Notice how the design of the proposal sets a professional, progressive tone for the whole document— even before you start reading. When designing your proposal, you should consider three components: graphics, page design, and medium: Graphics—In proposals, it is conunon to include charts, graphs, maps, illus— trations, photographs, and other kinds of graphichou should look for places in your proposal where graphics can be used to reinforce important points. Page design—Page layouts for proposals vary from simple to elaborate. At a minimum, you should use headings, lists, and graphics. More elaborate page layouts might include multiple columns, margin comments, pull quotes, and sidebars. Choose a page design that suits your readers and the context in which they will use the proposal. Medium—The appropriate medium is also an important choice with the advent of computers. Paper is still the norm for most proposals, but increas- ineg companies are using CD—ROMs, websites, and presentation software to deliver their ideas. In the rush to get the proposal out the door, you might be tempted to skip the design phase of the writing process.You might even convince yourself that Visual design doesn’t matter to readers. Don’t fool yourself. Good design is very important in proposals. Design makes the proposal more attractive while helping readers locate important information in the document. Revising, Editing, and Proofreading You and your team should always leave plenty of time to revise, edit, and proofread your proposal. At this point in the writing process, you can dramatically strengthen the content, organization, style, and design of the document. Your time revising and editing will be well spent. After all, in today’s competitive technical workplace, a carefully revised and edited proposal is often the difference be- tween success and failure. As you revise, edit, and proofread your proposal, consider the following three areas: Review the rhetorical situation-When you have completed a draft, look back at your original notes on the proposals subject, purpose, readers, and context of use. In some cases your subject and purpose might have evolved as you drafted the proposal. Or, perhaps you now have a better understand— ing of your readers and the context in which the proposal will be used. Edit for ethics—Proposals almost always involve ethical issues of some kind. Ask yourself whether the proposal stretches the truth in places. Does it hide important information? Are the graphics drawn ethically? Unethical proposals can lead to lawsuits or lost clients, so make sure your proposal anticipates any ethical issues that might be involved. Revising, Editing, and Proofreading For more information on using graphics, see Chapter 11, page 282. For more information on page and screen layout, see Chapter 10, page 243. For more information on developing oral presentations with presentation software, see Chapter 16, page 429. For more information on ethics, see Chapter 5, page 95. Header acids color anti anchors the top of the page. We of A Proposal for Upgrading the National-Scale Soil proposal is bold and easy to read. Headings provide access points into Etamp/e 2—Your environmental consulting tirm has been assigned ln \utrk with it tent“ of specialism conducting (I risk-based 1\\C.s<lllcmtlr Two-column format makes text more scannahle. 632 Sample Proposal Design ’USGS “a” QNRCStztaasrzrst-a. science fora changing world Geochemical Database forthe United States I i I lit: mtlyt requested data rm.“ the us. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Geochemical Ddlalkht: is a set of L32] soil saniplcs‘. Why? Consider the following examples: Exalti/iii: l—Imagine l’ora mmnenl that you are employed by an em irunmett- tal regulatory agency nt’either the Federal or a State Government. Your assignment is to Establish a “remedtation value" for arsenic in soil at a contaminated site “here a wood preservative facility onCe operated, Current arsenic values in soils in the facility range from 15 i093 ppm and you musl decide the concentration or arsenic that is acceptable after remedia- tion efforts are complete entists refer to Iht: natural or native c tration of an element itt sttil\ as the “background concentration." Gi\en the fact that arsenic occurs naturally in all soils. how would you determine the haekgruund concentration of arsenic in soils for this particular area? Figure 1. Map til arsenic distributi'nn in soils and other surflcial materials atihe canterm/naus United States based on L323 sump/e localities as represented by the black dais. States. The primary purpose of this study was to assess back- ground le\els of lead and cadmium in major [bod L‘Nll‘h and in soil; on “him these crops grow. 'lTius', the samples “an: only time lyled for live metalsilead. cadmium, copper, fine. and nickel. The Shacklette data set allott s lh to produce geochemical maps for specific elements. such as that shown on figure I for anenic (Onstavssnn and others. 200] ). A map produced from such spam: data points: obvioust carries a large degree of uncertainty with it and does not have the resolution needed to ansner many or land contaminated with lead, zinc. and cadmium from a metal foundry. The assessment \yould detenmne the likelihood of adverse health or ecological effects cauxed by the contaminants. Again. an important pan ut’thix detenitination is. "What it the background concentration at these elements in lhc soil?" What data are a ‘ ' hle for persons responsible [or making the detenninations or round concentrations for soils contaminated \\ ith potentially toxic rt is! The nttist—ol’ten-quotcd data set for background mueentrationx' ot’nietals and other trace elements in soil of the centenni- nous United States Consists ol’only l W samplm collected during Ihc the questions- raised by [andrnldllagemcnl and regulatory agencies. 960) and 1970‘ by the US. Geological Suney (Boemgen and Shack- eanh scietltis . and soil svicnlius. All example of the poor data lette. I98]: Sltaeklelte and Bocrngen. 198-5). (There is a similar data set wet msoluliun is illustrated for Pennsylvania (tip. 2). The State is for Alaska (Cough and others. 1984. I983», Samples for the "Shacklette divided into major soil ta\onttinic Llan referred to as Suborders data” “were collected from a depth of about I it. primarily from nuncul- (Soil Survey StalT, I999). Suborders group similar soil types in livated fields having na 've vegetation. and samples were analyzed for arty region. The dots repmsent the sample points from the Shack- nmm than 40 r s. ttln in this study represent about one sample lettc data set. The few sample points shonn on figure 2 illustrate .. )rniz. indicating that very few samples “ere collected in e‘ in that this data set \muld be inadequate For someone “Ito inust Slalt‘. For example. the State of Arizona is cm cred by only 47 samples. define the arsenic content of a given soil. At this time. no data set and Pennsylvania has only 16. Despite the lutv number of samples, ll’ti\ Cnisb‘ that \\ ill allow us to make thew kinds ol'determinations. data set is still being used on a regular basis to determine background The USGS and NRCS are currently studying the feasibility concentrations at metals in soil to aid in remediation or risk-based ola nation l scale soil geochemical survey that \t‘tll increase the assessntcntt of contaminated land. sample dL‘lhlly ot‘ the Shat‘Ht‘llt: data set by at least a factor of It). The only other national-scale soil geochemical data set for the United This project. Called G ‘ochcmical Landscapes. began in Oclnber States was generated by the Natural Resources Cmiscn atiun Senice 2001The first 3 years will be devoted to determining how such a (NRCS). lunnerly the Soil Conservation Servim tHolmgren and others. survey should be conducted. Therefore. “e are actit cly \tllitlllng l9”). This data set consists of 1.045 samples of agritttltuml soil rule input from potential customers ofthe new data. littereyted mem- lected from major crop-producing are.“ of the cutllt‘rminom United hen oi the private sector. goteiniitent. or academic cuntmunilim _—__________——__————————-—————_ USGS FattSheelFSblSOJ U S Depamentntme ll’llBllGl' i. us Gloioglcfll Sony 3 ’”“‘°“""““ W“ March 2003 Source: U.S. Geological Survey, 2003. Chapter 21 Proposals Figure 21.13: The page design of this proposal sets a professional tone while helping readers scan for important information. The tone is set with positive words and phrasings, while the graphics and headings make the information easy to access. Graphic supports text while adding color. Jane Perkins CONthU'NlCATIONS CONSU’EANT, A.T. KEARNEY, CHICAGO, lLLiNOlS A.T. Kearney is a consulting firm that works in high—tech industries. What makes a proposal successful? Writing proposals is critical work at A.T. Kearney, a global management consulting firm Icomprtsed primarily of MBAS with engineering backgrounds. It is how we obtain the majority of our business. Our success in writing proposals depends on key aspects of our proposal process: 0 Web—based processes for data and expertise. We have formal processes in place to proactively gather important data that is necessary for providing potential clients with decision-making information. We also rely on an informal and col- laborative network for tapping into expertise throughout the firm. These processes help us write proposals that include the necessary level of detail that persuades stakeholders. 0 A cohesive proposal and selling process. For many opportunities, we develop a series of proposal documents, which are components of a negotiation/selling process, often extending over months. For example, an opportunity might begin with a formal RFP to down—select competitors. The RFP often specifies providing both OIl-llIle and print versions with strict requirements on content, length, and soft— ware application. For the next round, we would probably prepare a PowerPoint presentation for the client buyers. This round would open the door for refine— ments on the scope and initiate negotiations. The proposal process might then conclude with a proposal letter to summarize the aspects we had discussed. 0 Innovation and internal education. Our proposal wn'ting spurs much innovation and forward thinking, as we respond to evolving client needs and opportuni— ties, and we build on recent project work. Proposal teams are not only educat— ing clients through proposals but also important, internal stakeholders, such as those responsible for ensuring financials and quality delivery of the project. The use of eRooms and collaborative applications facilitates this learning process. Additionally, expert reviews at specified stages of the proposal process are part of our culture—leadership insights and approvals help the proposal team, while the latest thinking is spread across the firm. As you can see, a well-“mitten proposal is only part of a much larger process. Proofread—You might be surprised how many proposals are rejected simply because of grammatical mistakes, typos, and misspellings. The im- portance of good proofreading makes sense. After all, why would readers put their money and faith in you if your proposal demonstrates carelessness and lack of quality? You need to proofread your text and graphics carefully for any errors. Solid revision and editing are often the difference between proposals that succeed and those that fad. Make sure you reserve plenty of time for revising and editing. Revising, Editing, and Proofreading For more information on editing and proofreading, see Chapter 12, page 314. as 52> n11! EPA :U >m 2% on '02 7001 9a rn n .4 m 634 Individual or Team Projects 1. Analyze the proposal “‘Meaningful’ Outdoor Experiences for Students,” at the end . Find an RFP at www.fedbizopps.gov or in the classifieds of your local newspaper. Proposals are documents that present ideas or plans for consideration. Proposals can be internal or external and solicited or unsolicited. Proposals usually include five sections: (1) introduction, (2) current situation, (3) project plan, (4) qualifications, and (5) costs and benefits. When planning the proposal, start out by defining the Five—W and How Questions. Then define the rhetorical situation (subject, purpose, readers, context of use). When organizing and drafting the proposal, each major section should be written separately with an opening, a body, and a closing. Proposals should use a combination of plain and persuasive style to motivate readers. Design is absolutely essential in professional proposals.You should look for places where page layout and graphics will improve the readability of your proposal. Don’t skimp on the revision, editing, and proofreading of the proposal. A proposal that demonstrates poor quality in writing usually signals inattention to quality by the bidder (you). of this chapter. Study the content, organization, style, and design of the proposal. Does it cover the four areas (current situation, project plan, qualifications, costs and benefits) that were discussed in this chapter? Where does it include more or less information than you would expect in a proposal? Write a two-page memo to your teacher in which you discuss whether you be- lieve the proposal was effectively written and designed. Discuss the content, orga- nization, style, and design in specific details. Highlight the proposal’s strengths and suggest ways in which it could be improved. Analyze the RFP according to the Who,What,Where,When,Why, and How _ Questions. Then, prepare a presentation for your class in which you (a) summarize the contents of the RFP, (b) discuss why you believe the RFP was sent out, and (c) explain what kinds of projects would be suitable for this RFP. Chapter 21 Proposals 3. Find a proposal that demonstrates weak style and/ or design. Using the style and design techniques discussed in this chapter and in Chapters 9, 10, and 12, revise the document so that it is more persuasive and more visual. Locate places where blocks of text could be turned into lists, and identify places where graphics would reinforce the text. Collaborative Project: Improving Campus As students, you are aware—perhaps more so than the administrators—0f some of the problems on campusWrite a proposal that analyzes the causes of a particular problem on campus and then offers a solution that the administration might consider implementing. The proposal should be written to a named authority on campus who has the power to say yes to your proposal and put it into action. Some campus-based proposals you might consider include the following: improving lighting on campus to improve safety at night. improving living conditions in your dorm or fraternity/ sorority. creating a day—care center on campus. creating an adult commuter room in the student union. improving campus facilities for the handicapped. improving security in buildings on campus. creating a university public relations office run by students. increasing access to computers on campus. improving the parking situation. reducing graffiti and/or litter on campus. improving food service in the student union. helping new students make the transition to college. changing the grading system at the university. encouraging more recycling on campus. reducing the dependence on cars among faculty and students. Use your imagination to come up with a problem to which you can offer a solu— tion.You don’t need to be the person who implements the program. Just offer some guidance for the administrators. Take Note In the qualifications section of your proposal, you will likely need to recom- mend that someone else should do the work. Revision Challenge This proposal in Figure A is written well, but it could be strengthened in organiza— tion, style, and design. Read through the proposal and identify places where you could make the proposal stronger. Exercises and Projects Sample Proposal ; L Chapter 21 Proposals WW Organization: Monterey Bay High School Applicant Name: Ted Watson P.I.: Ariel Jane Lichwart Address: 590 Foam Street, Monterey, CA 93940 Telephone Number: Ted: (831) 244-7843, Ariel: (831) 244—7842 Email Address: Ted: [email protected] Ariel: [email protected] Partner: Carmel River Watershed Council Area of Interest: “Meaningful” Outdoor Experiences for Students Project Title: A Meaningful Outdoor Experience for Students: To Monitor the Health of the Carmel River and Carmel Watershed Project Period: 09/01/2003 — 10/31/2004 Project Objectives: 7 To provide a meaningful outdoor experience for all of the 650 students at Monterey Bay High School; — To assess the environmental quality and health of the Carmel River and the impact these problems have on the entire watershed and the larger ecological system; I — To teach the students how to monitor fish traps, conduct water quahty tests, measure stream flow, operate plant surveys, perform bird density measurements (point counts), sample invertebrate and plankton tows, and perform herpetology surveys along the River, — To assist local agencies that are concerned with the health of the Carmel River, to maintain existing populations and to assist in restoring those that are in decline through habitat restoration work, comrruinity-based education programs and increased local involvement in environmental projects; — To raise the student’s social awareness, stimulate observation, motivate critical thinking, and develop problem‘solving skills. Summary of Work: To provide high school students with Meaningful Outdoor Experiences by assessing the environmental quality and health of the Carmel River and Watershed. Total Federal Funds: $50,000 Cost Sharing: $25,643 Total Project Costs: $75,643 Source: National Marine Sanctuaries, http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/news/bwet/. Figure A: This proposal is well written, but not perfect. How might you revise this document to make its content, organization, style, and design even stronger? Grant Proposal Purpose of Project Monterey Bay High School is requesting $50,000 from NOAA for Environmental Education Projects in the Monterey Bay Watershed to provide high school students with Meaningful Outdoor Experiences by assessing the environmental quality and health of the Carmel River and Watershed. The Carmel River Watershed Council will be our collaborative working partner during the course of the grant. How The project will take place over a one-year period of time, beginning September 1, 2003. It will consist of three phases: the preparation phase, the action phase, and the reflection phase. The preparation and reflection stages will each be 3 months long; the action phase will take place over a 6 month period, Project Objectives a To provide a meaningful outdoor experience for all of the 650 students at Monterey Bay High School; — To assess the environmental quality and health of the Carmel River and the impact these problems have on the entire watershed and the larger ecological system; — To teach the students how to monitor fish traps, conduct water quality tests, measure stream flow, operate plant surveys, perform bird density measurements (point counts), sample invertebrate and plankton tows, and perform herpetology surveys along the River; a To assist local agencies that are concerned with the health of the Carmel River, to maintain existing populations and to assist in restoring those that are in decline through habitat restoration work, commuiity-based education programs and increased local involvement in environmental projects; — To raise the student’s social awareness, stimulate observation, motivate critical thinking, and develop problem-solving skills. Preparation Phase All of the 650 students at Monterey Bay High School (grades 9-12) will participate in the preparation phase. At the outset of the preparation phase, we will propose the question: What is the present health of the Carmel River and how does the river’s health affect the entire watershed? During this phase the students and the teachers will do the initial background research on the Carmel River. The students will hear guest lectures delivered by our partner the Carmel River Watershed Council, and other state and local organizations that will be collaborating with us on this project (Carmel River Steelhead Association, Monterey Peninsula Audubon Society, Ventana Wilderness Society and the Monterey County Water Management District, California State Parks). 'Ihese agencies will also supply us Exercises and Projects Figure A: (continued) (continued) 637 638 with data previously collected that cltarts the Carmel River‘s vegetation, birds, wildlife, and fisheries, invertebrates and water quality. Certain problems will quickly become apparent to the studertts suclt as erosion, vegetation loss, coliform and other water pollutants, loss of wildlife densities and use of habitat, steelhead declines, and invertebrate declines. After disoussion and analysis students will make their predictions aborrt other potential problems in the Carmel River Watershed. We will then set up our goals to investigate in greater depth some of the problems associated with the River and the Watershed. Action Phase All of the students will participate in this field research phase. After a site visit to four selected Carmel River locations (upper Watershed, middle River site, site adjacent to the High School and Carmel River mouth), we will set up a phenological (timeline) schedule for sampling the sites with the students and the teachers. Each site will be sampled at least once per month over a six month period, Some of the activities and projects conducted at each site will include the monitoring of fish traps, conducting water quality tests, measuring stream flow, operating plant surveys, performing bird density measurements (point counts) and a bird banding program, sampling invertebrate and plankton tows, and performing herpetology surveys. All students will keep extensive journals, and record their observations and experiments at the River sites. Reflection Phase Following the six month research project at the Carmel River W atershcd sites, the students and teachers will discuss their findings, refocus on the initial question, analyze the conclusions reached, and evaluate the results. W C will also conduct appropriate assessment activities to evaluate the project and the learning achieved. The students will be divided into learns, and each team will write up a different aspect of each finding. The students will present this data to all interested stakeholders, including the Carmel RiVer Steelhead Association, the Monterey County Water Management District, Monterey Regional Parks, California State Parks, the Ventana Wilderness Society and the Mortterey Peninsula Audubon Society. Their conclusions will be used by these agencies to help evaluate further watershed studies, to maintain existing populations and to assist in restoring those that are in decline through habitat restoration work, conununity-based education programs and increased local involvement in environmental projects. Local media will report on our results and the projects that will take place as a result of the students’ work. Why 1— Demonstrate to students that local actions can impact the greater water environment (fie, Monterey Bay). An intentional connection needs to be tirade to Water quality, the watershed and the larger ecological system. Through this project, the students will learn that the Carmel River is besieged with problems such as erosion, vegetation loss, colifotm and other water pollutants, loss of wildlife densities and use of habitat, steelhead declines, and invertebrate declines. Part of Chapter 21 Proposals Figure A: (continued) the Reflection phase will be used to study the impact these problems in the River have on the entire Watershed and the larger ecological system. As with all of the lessons we teach at our habitat, the students will learn about the connectedness of all living creatures and all actions, both large and small. 2-Experiences should include activities where questions, problems and issues are investigated through data collection, observation and hands-on activities. Much of the work done throughout this project involves data collection, observation and hands-on activities. In the preparation phase, the students and teachers will be analyzing data previously collected by our partner organization, the Carmel River Watershed Council, on the vegetation, birds, wildlife and fisheries, invertebrates and water quality. In the action phase, the students and teachers will perform hands-on activities at four sites along the river, at least once a month at each site, over a six month period. These activities include the monitoring of fish traps, conducting water quality tests, measuring stream flow, operating plant surveys, performing bird density measurements (point counts) and banding birds, sampling invertebrate and plankton tows, and performing herpetology surveys. In the reflection phase, the students will examine the questions asked in light of the data they collected. They will then share their data with supporting local and state organizations so that some of the problems discovered can begin to be eradicated. 3-Experiences should stimulate observation, motivate critical drinking, develop problerrt solvlrrg skills and instill confidence in students. There is no question but that this project will stimulate observation, motivate critical thinking, and develop problem solving skills. As a result, the students will acquire confidence, not only in their investigative slcills, but also to be active participants in the public debate on many environmental issues. It is our experience that projects such as this one not only raise social awareness, but academic skills as well. It is a well known fact that students learn better by doing; by aligning the work done for this project with California state Standards (see number 7) the academic performance of the students will clearly be enhanced. 4 ~Activities sltould encourage students to assist, share, communicate and connect directly with the outdoors. Experiences cart include: (1) Investigative or experimental design activities where students or groups of students use equipment, take measurements and make observations for the purpose of making interpretations and reaching conclusions; (2) Project—oriented experiences, such as restoration, monitoring, and protection projects, that are problem solving in nature and involve many investigative skills. These experiences should involve fieldwork, data collection and analysis. As stated above, all of the activities for this project involve investigative or experimental design activities where the students use equipment, take measurements, and make observations for the purpose of making interpretations and reaching conclusions. In Exercises and Projects Figure A: (continued) (continued) 639 640 addition, many of the activities in the action phase involve monitoring projects that are problem solving in nature and involve many investigative skills. All of the experiences involve fieldwork, data collection and analysis. 5- The “Meaningful” outdoor experiences need to be part ofa sustained activity; the total duration leading up to and following the activity should involve a significant investment of instructional time. Since many of the activities that will take place during all three phases will be aligned with the California State Standards, the "Meaningful" outdoor experiences will be embedded into the science curriculum (see number 7), and will encompass at least 10% of instructional time over the year period of the grant. This sustained activity will involve a significant outlay of instructional time, not just in the classroom, but in the field as well. As the budget narrative sets forth, all teachers, the principal investigator and the field coordinators will invest many hours preparing and teaching the lessons as well as helping the students to perform the tasks at the site. 6- An experience should consist of three general parts: a preparation phasewhlch focuses on a question, problem or issue and involves students in discussions about it; an action phase-which includes one or more outdoor experiences sufficient to conduct the project, make the observations or collect the data required; and the reflection phase<which refocuses on the question, problem, or issue, analyzes the conclusion reached, evaluates the results, and assesses the activity and the learning. This project will consist ofa preparation phase, an action phase and a reflection phase. The details of these are set forth above. 7- “Meaningful” outdoor experiences must be an integral part of the instructional program and clearly part ofwhat is occurring concurrently in the classroom; aligned with the California academic learning standards; and make appropriate connections among subject areas and reflect an integrated approach to learning. Experiences should occur where and when they fit into the instructional sequence. All of the sampling and research will be aligned with the California State Standards. For example, water sampling fits into our 9““ grade chemistry curriculum; erosion aligns with the earth science requirement for 10th and 11m grade; wildlife monitoring is part of the scientific investigation component that is required for all grade levels. In addition, this Project is a perfect complement to the River of Words program, where the students submit poetry and art to the international contest that is based on their experiences and observations of their Watershed ( see description, above). 8- Project should demonstrate partnerships that form n collaborative working relationship, with all partners taking an active role in the project. The Carmel River Watershed Council (CRWC) will be a collaborative working partner during the course of this grant. The CRWC is a nonprofit, cormnunity based organization Chapter 21 Proposals Figure A: (continued) founded in 1999. to work with local, state and federal agencies for improved management of the Camel River Watershed. The primary mission of the CRWC is the protection of the natural resources that form the Carmel River Watershed. The CRWC will take an active role in this Project. During the course of this Project, they Will provide the students and teachers at Monterey Bay High School with data that has been collected by them and other agencies concerning the vegetation, birds, wildlife and fisheries, invertebrates and water quality so that the students can assess and analyze the potential problems in the Carmel River. The principal investigator, who is a consultant for the CRWC (and is also a teacher at the High School), will organize and coordinate the project, and provide, on an ongoing basis, expertise, teaching skills, and leadership to guide the staff in working with the students in the sampling of the river, monitoring of fish traps, conducting water quality tests, measuring stream flow, operating plant surveys, performing bird density measurements and bird banding, sampling invertebrate and plankton tows, and performing herpetology surveys. In all of these activities, he and other consultants at CRWC will work with the staff at the Biological Sciences Project and the participating teachers at the Monterey Bay High School to provide the students with a meaningful outdoor experience that will encourage them to have greater pride and ownership of their environment and become more effective and thoughtful community leaders and participants. The students will be doing impomnt research that will benefit not only the Carmel River Watershed Council, but other local and state agencies, such as the Carmel River Steelhead Association, the Monterey County Water Management District, Monterey Regional Parks, California State Parks, the Ventana Wilderness society and the Monterey Peninsula Audubon Society. All of the data that is gathered w111 be shared with these groups through student presentations and be usod to evaluate fiiture watershed activities that will help to maintain existing populations and assist in restoring ones that are in decline through habitat restoration work, community based education programs, and increased local involvement in community projects. Who The principal organization is the Monterey Bay High School. The Carmel River Watershed Council will be collaborating as our partner. Both organizations have been described in great detail, above. The target audience is high school students, grades 9—12. All of the 650 students in the school will participate in all three phases of the project. The students and teachers at Monterey Bay High School, as well as the consultants that work with the Carmel River Watershed Council, have a great deal of experience using outdoor, hands-on activities as an integral part of the educational process. This project is an ideal and natural complement to the activities that take place at our habitat. We are committed to using the env1ronment as a context for learning and improving the understanding of environmental stewardship of students and teachers. Many of the teachers at the school have extensive experience in teaching bird banding, data analysis and measurement and understand how to teach these types of scientific techniques to this age group of students. For those that do not have expertise in the subject matter that will be emphasized in this Project, the Exercises and Projects Figure A: (continued) (continued) 641 Principal Investigator and other consultants fiom local agencies with expertise in these areas will provide Professional Development for the teachers. The Project Manager for the Habitat will be coordinating this project and the Project Intern will assist in the gathering and computation of the data. Four teachers, all from the science department, will participate in all three phases of the Project, and will serve as field coordinators. A consultant from the Carmel River Watershed Council, who is also a science teacher at the High School, will be directing the study and serve as the Principal Investigator. He will coordinate the three phases, oversee the teachers, and synchronize the visits and data collection during the action phase (see number 8, above). Where The Project will take place at Monterey Bay High School and on the Carmel River. The Carmel River is 36 miles long. It drains about 255 square Iniles while flowing NW out of the valley between the Santa Lucia Mountains on the South and the Sierra del Salinas to the North and East. The river empties into the Pacific Ocean near Carmel, California. The lower river flows from the mouth to the narrows, about 9 miles up stream; the middle river flows from the narrows to Camp Stephani; the upper river flows through rugged canyons. We will set up four study sites: at the Carmel River mouth; at a site close to the High School; in the mid-Valley area; and at Cachagua Community Park below Los Padres Dam. Need This important project could not take place without government financial assistance. The financial health of the state and county budgets preclude funding for projects sueh as this one; in addition private grant funding is becoming increasingly diffith to secure. Without the financial aid of the federal government, these types of meaningful outdoor experiences for students could not take place. Benefits 01' Results Expected There are a number of benefits and results that will be derived from the proposed activities. First, the students will gather important data that will help to clarify what can be done to help bring the Carmel River and the Carmel Watershed to a state of good health. The students will be doing significant research that will benefit not only the Carmel River Watershed Council, but other local and state agencies, such as the Carmel River Steelhead Association, the Monterey County Water Management District, Monterey Regional Parks, California State Parks, the Ventana Wilderness Society and the Monterey Peninsula Audubon Society. All of the data that is gathered will be shared with these groups through student presentations and be used to evaluate future watershed Chapter 21 Proposals Figure A: (continued) activities that will help to maintain existing populations and assist in restoring ones that are in decline through habimt restoration work, community based education programs, and increased local involvement in community projects. In addition, the process of progressing through the preparation phase, the action phase and the reflection phase will provide the students with a meaningful outdoor experience that will encourage them to have greater pride and ownership of their environment and become more effective and thoughtful community leaders and participants. This project will stimulate observation, motivate critical thinking, and develop problem solving skills. As a result, the students will acquire confidence, not only in their investigative skills, but also to be active participants in the public debate on many environmental issues. Project Evaluation We will employ various methodologies to ensure that we are meeting the goals and obj ectives of our proj ect. First, we will give pre and post tests to the students before the project begins and at its conclusion to determine if they have learned the science and skills that we want to teach through this proj ect. In addition, students will be tested periodically throughout the course of the project as part of their coursework requirements. Second, all students will keep extensive journals in which they will evaluate the data they have collected. At the end of the project, they will be asked to summarize their findings and submit them in a report. In addition, each student will be required to perform an independent science experiment that relates to the work being done at the River (i.e., measure the amount of nitrates in the water). Third, the results of the data that is gathered will be presented by the students to the local and state agencies that are stakeholders in the Carmel River Watershed. These reports will be evaluated and critiqued by these agencies, along with suggestions for future studies. Fourth, the students will use their experiences at the river as the basis for the and poetry they submit to the River of Words competition that takes place each spring. Finally, interested classes of incoming 9m graders will be invited to take a trip to one of the sites where the High School students can mentor or teach them some of the skills that they have learned. Exercises and Projects Figure A: (continued) 644 The Mole Henry Espinoza knew this proposal was important to his company, Valen Industries. If the proposal was successful, it could be worth millions of dollars in short—term and long— term projects for his employer. For Henry, winning the project meant a likely promo— tion to vice president and a huge raise in salary. The company’s CEO was calling him daily to check up and see if it was going well. That meant she was getting stressed out about the project. Through the grapevine, Henry knew his com— pany really had only one major competitor for the project. So, the odds were good that Valen Industries would win the contract. Of course, Henry and his team needed to put together an in- novative and flawless proposal to Win, because their major competitor was going all out to get this project. Then, one day something interesting hap- pened. One of Henry’s team members, Vera Houser, came to him with an e—mail from one of her friends, who worked for their main competi- tor. In the e—mail, this person offered to giveValen Industries a draft of its competitor’s proposal. Moreover, this friend would pass along any future drafts as the proposal evolved. In the e—mail,Vera’s friend said he was very frustrated working at his “slimy” company, and he was looking for a way out. He also revealed that his company was getting “inside help” on the proposal, but Henry wasn’t sure what that meant. Essentially, this person was hinting that he would give Henry’s team a copy of the competitor’s proposal and work as a mole if they considered hiring him at Valen Industries. Henry knew he would gain a considerable advantage over his only competitor if he had a draft of its proposal to look over. The ability to look at future drafts would almost ensure that he could beat his competitor. Certainly, he thought, with this kind of money on the line, a few rules could be bent. And it seemed that his competitor was already cheating by receiving inside help. Henry went home to think it over. What would be the ethical choice in this situa— tion? How do you think Henry should handle this interesting opportunity? Chapter 21 “0’9 ’33» . , j ‘ . j ‘ Proposals - 5), r - . W“: “I II v1} (.| I: x:'.-,-.., ‘.u‘ In this chapter, you will learn: About the different kinds of activity reports and how they are used in the workplace. The basic features of activity reports. How to determine the rhetorical situation of an activity report. How to organize and draft an activity report. Strategies for using an appropriate style. How to design and format activity reports. The importance of editing and proofreading activity reports. Basic Features of Activity Reports 646 Types of Activity Reports 646 Planning and Researchng Activity Reports 656 Organizing and Drafting Activity Reports 659 Help: Making and Using PDFs 663 Using Style and Design in Activity Reports 664 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading 665 Chapter Review 666 Exercises and Projects 666 Case Study: Bad Chemistry 669 ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/25/2011 for the course ENGLISH 420 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '11 term at Purdue.

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