18 beta oxidation

18 beta oxidation - Biochemistry Education BIOC 423:...

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B iochemis±ry ²E duca±ion Department±of±²iochemistry±&±Molecular±²iology University±of±New±Mexico BIOC 423± Int²oducto²y Biochemist²y Fatty Acid catabolism OBJECTIVES Describe the structures of the most common fatty acids and be able to use both the delta ( Δ ) and omega ( Ω ) labeling system. o Palmitic (16:0) o Stearic (18:0) o oleic acids 18:1 Δ 9 Know how fatty acids are transported in the body. Know the structure of triacylglycerols and the process which converts triacylglycerol to free fatty acids. Understand the function and know the sub-cellular locations of the enzymes of the β -oxidation pathway and how fatty acids are transported from one location in the cell to another. Know the structures of all intermediates in β -oxidation pathway, substrates, products, enzymes and cofactors. Know which type of reaction occurs at each step in the β -oxidation pathway, e.g. hydration, oxidation, thiolysis, etc. Understand the significance and mechanism of the carnitine shuttle. Know the significance of ketone bodies, how they are formed and under which physiological conditions they are formed.
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OUTLINE Biological Role of Fatty Acid Oxidation Fatty Acid Mobilization and Transport Dietary fatty acids Adipose fatty acids Trapping free fatty acids Carnitine Transport Reactions of β -Oxidation Oxidation of unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acids Ketogenesis What are ketones Metabolism of ketones Conditions for synthesis of ketones LECTURE Up to this point in the metabolism section of the course we have explored how carbohydrates are used as fuel. Whereas all tissues can extract energy from glucose there are a couple of problems using glucose as an energy source. First, it is not the most energy rich compound that we have available. Recall that energy can be extracted from C-C bonds and C-H bonds both of which exist in glucose. However, no energy can be extracted from C-O bonds and, in carbohydrates with a molecular formula of (CH 2 O) n , there is a significant amount of partially oxidized carbon. A second and probably more significant problem is in the chemistry of carbohydrate itself. With all of the OH groups that can easily hydrogen bond to water, carbohydrates are highly hydrated. It has been estimated that were we to store 5 pounds of fat as an energy reserve, it would require 45 pounds of hydrated carbohydrate to store an equivalent amount of energy. Another example of the energy stored in lipids is that a normal individual with 15 kg of adipose tissue can survive 3 months of starvation. However, an obese individual of the same stature but with 65 kg of additional adipose tissue
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would survive 14 months of starvation. In addition to storing potential metabolic energy, lipids have several biological roles including insulation, structural, hormones, and membrane components.
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18 beta oxidation - Biochemistry Education BIOC 423:...

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