Env S midterm study guide

Env S midterm study guide - E.S. Final Study Guide Week 1...

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E.S. Final Study Guide Definition of Environmental science - study of what leads to environmental problems and how they can be solved; Group of linked social and physical sciences; attempts to explain how life is sustained Systems theory - An interdisciplinary field of science that studies the complex systems in nature and society A set or collection of objects that work together and relate to produce an outcome Automobile Example (inputs-fuel, oxygen, oil, water, tires, resources, payments; outputs-exhaust gases, heat energy, mechanical motion, oil waste, used tires, scrap metal and plastic) Issues of change and scale: Change : Gradual: normal, expected Sudden: new conditions are established Accelerating: may be difficult to deal with Surprising: come out of the blue Complex and linked: chaos, feedbacks Realms : social or human realm atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere (all the water on Earth, and sometimes even clouds), and biosphere (everything occupied by living organisms) Scale : Global scale- local scale Biomes Ecosystems Populations and communities TIME CYCLES AND SCALES (LOOK AT PHENOMENON FROM TENS TO MILLIONS OF YEARS) Science and Values - science provides potential solutions and the solutions we choose reflect our values; the problems we choose to research reflect our values also
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Scientific method - part of the solution. Hypothesis testing that doesn’t prove anything but disproves things. Converted into research questions. Hypothesis testing - does not prove anything but instead disproves things Graphic literacy - ability to understand, interpret, and analyze data represented graphically Week 2 – Human Population, Human – Environment Relations Human Population Growth - underlying environmental problem; The human population grew at a rate unprecedented in history in the 20 th century Exponential growth, super exponential growth - when population grows at increasing growth at rate of increase; United States is growing exponentially and is expected to level off soon and hit carrying capacity Population distribution - 60% of the world’s population lives near 60 miles of the ocean; factors relating to the distribution are: climate, cities, soil fertility, and arability Where are the most people? -China: 1.3 billion -India: 1.1 billion -USA: 306 million -Indonesia: 230 million -Brazil: 191 million -Pakistan: 166 million ~29% of earth’s surface is terrestrial 7 billion people projected by 2011 Urbanization - what about the urban vs. rural split? About a 50/50 split but there are a little more people living in urban areas
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Population age – sex distribution, pyramids: Population age structure: the proportion of the population in each age class affects current and future birth rates, death rates and growth rates has an impact on the environment has implications for current and future social and economic status Population pyramids: diagrams of population structure show age—sex distribution
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This note was uploaded on 08/26/2011 for the course ENVIRONMEN 2 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UCSB.

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Env S midterm study guide - E.S. Final Study Guide Week 1...

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