Comm 88 Notes

Comm 88 Notes - Comm 88 Notes 1 Get Reader today two...

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Unformatted text preview: Comm 88 Notes 3/31/11 1. Get Reader today- two exercises due in section tommorow. Choosing a topic & Understanding Published studies. 2. Ways of Knowing continued o Know as Epistemology o Some Everyday ways on knowing • Method of tradition/tenacity "It's the way it's always been done" • Method of Authority Shortcut to knowledge Weakness: • You might get false information. • Method of intuition/logic Common sense "Platonic idealism" • Method of experience/ observation Personal experience "Baconian empiricism" (asking around to other people for their observations) o Problems with Everyday Ways of knowing • Illogical Reasoning • Inaccurate Observation • Overgeneralization • Selective Observation o Can lead to conflicting ideas about "truth" • Example: long-distance relationships Absence make the heart grow fonder OR Out of sight, out of mind o The Scientific Method • Combines "Platonic idealism" with "Baconian empiricism" Logic/intuition Constructing theories → Observation/ experience gathering data → • Commmunication Science: Use empirical observat ions to test theories about comm processes. o Unique Characteristics of Science • (How is "science" different from the other "everyday" ways of knowing?) • Scient ific research is public Published in peer-reviewed journals Opportunity to replicate studies • Science is empirical A way of knowing or understanding of the world that relies directly or indirectly on what we experience through our senses Conscious, deliberate observations Many Observations. • Science is "objective" Cont rol/remove personal biases Explicit rules, standards, & procedures • Science is systematic and culmulat ive Builds on prior studies/ theories New knowledge modifies old o Goals of Scientific Research • Exploratory study To just explore topics Make observations+ • Description Look for social regularities of aggregates Science can tell us 'what is' Descriptive study • Explanation Develop understanding of WHY patterns exist (e.g. what causes what) Science can tell us 'why it is' Explanatory study • Prediction Predict outcomes given certain factors Science can tell us 'what will be' • What science cannot do is settle questions of moral value . Cannot tell us 'what should be' (right/wrong, good/bad, moral/immoral) o Criticisms of Social Science • Critical Theory which claims that science reflects an investment in the status quo and fails to promote economic and social change that could transform social relations and empower the powerless • Historicism Denies the possibilities of general laws in so far as observed regularities are always tied to time and place • The 'discourse' school Emphasizes the way that language structures and limits knowledge • Post-modernism Rejects the possibility of abstract explanation and sees one description of reality as no more valid then another...
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Comm 88 Notes - Comm 88 Notes 1 Get Reader today two...

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