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11-Determination_and_Differentiation

11-Determination_and_Differentiation - Cell Fate...

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Cell Fate Determination and Differentiation
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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Determinants Cell fate is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factor: programmed genes turned on and off and lead to certain cell fate. Extrinsic factor: signals released by neighboring cells to turn on and off genes and lead to certain cell type. Extrinsically determined
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Testing Extrinsic Factors RA, Shh Noggin Chordin
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C. Elegans Lineage C. Elegans cell fate is mainly determined by intrinsic factors.
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Intrinsic Determinants in C. Elegans mutant mutant Q1.p Reverse to Mother Q Touch cell Needs mec-3 neuroblast Gene Control Hierarchy: Unc-86 Controls Mec-3 Unc-86 & Mec-3 Together Controls Mec-7, mec-12, Mec-17 etc mutant Functional defect
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Neuroblast Lineages in Drosophila Each neuroblast expresses a distinct set of markers and gives rise to a specific set of neurons and glia A neuroblast in a specific position always generates GMCs that produce the same group of neurons Neuroblasts transiently express temporally coordinated transcription factors Hb, then Kr, then Pdm, then Cas. Hb- or Kr- mutants miss corresponding GMCs; Maintain HB or KR keep the early form of GMCs
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Asymmetrical Division Asymmetric division: Intrinsic effect Different factors (Numb, Miranda, and Inscuteable) are located in opposite poles to promote asymmetric division
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Numb Distribution during Asymmetrical Division Green: Numb Red: chromosome Numb localize to one side and then restricted to only one cell (GMC) after asymmetric cell division.
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