13-AXON_Specification

13-AXON_Specification - Axon Specification Hippocampal...

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Axon Specification Hippocampal Neuronal Polarity Specified by Spatially Localized mPar3/mPar6 and PI 3-Kinase Activity Song-Hai Shi , Lily Yeh Jan , and Yuh-Nung Jan Cell, Vol 112, 63-75, 10 January 2003
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Cell Polarity Many cell types show polarity. Polarity leads to unique apical and basolateral membranes through protein sorting. In neurons the axon is a highly specified apical surface, the dendritic/somatic membrane is the basal surface.
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Polarity in Neurons Axons have highly organized and polarized cytoskeleton: microtubules create a highway for protein and vesicular transport. Golgi and ER are excluded from the axon The microtubule associated protein Tau1 is found mainly in axons. Synapses are predominately axo- dendritic, so cell polarity determines the direction of information flow.
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Dendrite: thick, short, and multiple Axon: immunostaining with tau-1 Dendrite: immunostaining with MAP2 Axon: microtubule + end point distally Dendrite: has mixed + and – end direction MAP2 is m icrotubule a ssociated p rotein, has nothing to do with MAP kinase, which is m itogen-a ctivated p rotein kinase. Dendrite: has much more endoplasmic reticulum and polyribosomes. Axon: presynaptic Dendrite: postsynaptic 6-24 hrs
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Cultured Mammalian Neurons Stage 1 Three defined stages of development for cultured neurons After removal from the host, cultured neurons have lost most of their processes and many membrane proteins Neurons appear spherical, then begin to adhere to the plating surface. This is similar to a newly ‘born’ neuron in vivo Dotti et al 1988
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Cells send out a number of processes (neurites). At this point any process can become the axon. The axon is ‘chosen’ at this stage. Size of growth cone
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13-AXON_Specification - Axon Specification Hippocampal...

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