19-Synapse_formation

19-Synapse_formation - Synapse Formation Part I...

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Synapse Formation Part I Neuromuscular Junction: The first and well studied model for synapse formation
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Development of Synapse Morphology Synapse development: 1) Increased axon branches; 2) Increased vesicles; 3) Thickened synaptic membranes 10,000 synapses per cortical neuron in adult brain! Light microscope Electron microscope EB: Auditory End bulb SBC: Spherical bushy cell EB SBC
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Synaptic Structure http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Synaps e_Illustration_unlabeled.svg Axon terminal Synaptic cleft Dendrite Synaptic vesicle Voltage-gated Ca2+ channel Postsynaptic density Neurotransmitter Reuptake pump Receptor
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Synapse Formation Process 1. Axon-dendritic contact : glutamatergic synapses are formed mostly on dendritic spines; GABAergic synapses are mainly on soma and proximal dendrites— it makes GABAergic inhibition more powerful than synapse onto distal dendrites. 2. Presynaptic differentiation : accumulation of presynaptic proteins such as bassoon and piccolo, accumulation of synaptic vesicles, organization of calcium channels. 3. Postsynaptic differentiation : expression of receptors on plasma membrane, expression of postsynaptic scaffold protein. 4. Alignment of pre- and postsynaptic apparatus : cell adhesion, such as neurexin-neuroligin interaction and SynCAM homophilic/heterophilic interaction. 5. Pre- and postsynaptic maturation : presynaptically released signals (agrin, NARP) organize postsynaptic receptor clusters. 6. Synaptic plasticity, competition, and elimination.
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Growth Cone Release Xenopus embryonic neuron Outside-out patch from muscle cell Mu-Ming Poo Outside-out Growth cone is constantly releasing acetocholine Axon keeps releasing transmitters
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Nerve growth cones release ACh Muscle cell express high density of ACh receptors. Nerve growth cone contacts muscle cell, presynaptic released ACh activates ACh receptors, inducing synaptic responses. Note: the initial rising phase
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19-Synapse_formation - Synapse Formation Part I...

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