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Evolution of Neural and Endocrine Systems

Evolution of Neural and Endocrine Systems - PNS-Somatic...

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Evolution of Neural and Endocrine Systems-Remote/Evolutionary Causes 1-3 Organismal constraints, long-term evolutionary history, general type and body plan of animal, widely shared genes, foundation of genome How do complex adaptation evolve? Gradual, miniscule changes over thousand of generations w/ long periods of interim stasis ***major structures are homologized ***neocortex expands, envelopes basal ganglia and displaces cortex Archicortex -3 becomes hippocampus, Paleocortex-2-layed goes downward-olfactory complex Expansion of Cerebrum-C-Shaped Trend, neocortical expansion and folding, Triune Brain-Reptilian Brain Four F’s Paleomammalian-(limbic system)-adds emotion, learning, and relationships Vertebrates Brain and Body Size-Upward Displacements are grade shifts Encephalization Quotient-measure of extra neurons occurred in hominids ***learning and relationships Limbic expansion allows for High metabolic rate, lactation, parental care, and high frequency hearing? Human Brain Organization-CNS and PNS-Brain
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Unformatted text preview: PNS-Somatic Nerves and Autonomic NS Primate Brain Evolution 1. Enhanced visual system 2. Depth perception 3. Eye-hand coordination Why vision?Arboreal and insect-eating so needed depth perception crossing over went from 100 to 50 so we don’t have eyes like horses in chiasm Brain Expansion-Tripling, increasing in cortical capacity Neocortex expansion-must be 6-layered and folding (species-specific) Cortical Specificity-extreme regional specificity (structure and function) The Taung Child Habilis-tool maker Cultural Revolution 40kya-needed Triune Brain Basal Ganglia and…Limbic System PNS also evolves Primitive vagus Nerve-PS-freezing in danger; reptilian adds fight or flight to sympathetic Mammals add fast component which modulates heart rate in social behavior Behavorial Endicronology-Adrenal cortex surrounds medulla in mammals, cortisol Cortisol is a cofactor for andrenergic release ***cortex expands as a sheet...
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  • Spring '11
  • GouzoulesandKonner
  • Triune Brain-Reptilian Brain, Basal Ganglia and…Limbic, Endocrine Systems-Remote/Evolutionary Causes

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