Chapter_15_Lecture_Notes

Chapter_15_Lecture_Notes - Chapter 15 Lecture Notes 1...

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Chapter 15 Lecture Notes 1. Environment and Technology Begin this chapter by identifying the different types of architecture (religious, memorial, residential, commercial, etc.) used by humankind throughout history. Look at the oldest surviving memorial architecture with the Egyptian Pyramids (fig. 453). Be sure to understand that architecture is dependent upon environment and technology, and their interrelation. Look at the Ziggurat at Ur (fig. 453) and Spruce Tree House (fig. 456) to further see how topography relates to architecture. Also think about buildings and their shapes. Why are the tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs in the shape of a pyramid, or the Ziggurat at Ur a mountain? Look at the cliff dwelling Spruce Tree House (fig. 456) and think about the historical context for the ancient Anasazi people. Understand the significance of the kiva and sipapu, and their relationship to Anasazi ceremonial life. Compare and contrast the Greek Parthenon, the Roman Pantheon, and the Gothic Cathedral. Look at the differences in appearance, function, and location, and how these characteristics reflect their respective societies. 2. Early Building Technology Remember that early building technology was predicated on the availability of materials. Sun-dried brick, timber, straw, and other perishable materials were used to create shelters and other ancient architecture, yet only the structures made with more durable materials, such as stone, have survived the centuries. The most basic and durable type of early construction methods is load-bearing, a method of stacking and piling (see the Egyptian Pyramids or the Ziggurat at Ur ). The post-and-lintel method of construction, illustrated in the Temple of Hera (fig. 459) and Stonehenge (fig. 558) allowed more flexibility in architectural design. Inspired by the philosophical and mathematical ideas of the ancient Greeks, this method is visible in The Parthenon (fig. 570) and other buildings located on the Acropolis in Athens. Greek architecture emphasized symmetry, order, logic, and rationality, values intrinsic to all areas of art and life in Classical Greece. Pont du Gard (fig. 462), an aqueduct and bridge built using arches, is the architectural achievement of Roman engineering. To overcome the limitations of the Greek post-and-lintel method of construction, the Romans perfected the arch method of construction and invented a new architectural material concrete. The arch could span a broad space and expand in both directions to form a barrel vault, or in 360 degrees to form a dome (see figs. 461 & 463), thus allowing for large open interior spaces, which was a completely new concept at the time. Look at images of the Colosseum (figs. 464 & 465) and the interior of the Roman Pantheon ), the world’s first uninterrupted, open, interior spaces. 3. Building in the Middle Ages
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This note was uploaded on 08/26/2011 for the course CH 302 taught by Professor Holcombe during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.

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Chapter_15_Lecture_Notes - Chapter 15 Lecture Notes 1...

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