BIO OUTLINE - Josephine Do jnd543 BIO 311C Final Review...

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Josephine Do jnd543 BIO 311C Final Review Chapter 5: Biological Molecules - Condensation Synthesis and Hydrolysis o Atoms Molecule Macromolecule o Monomers are combined through condensation reaction to make a dimer through the removal of an –H and an –OH group which combine to form a water (H O) molecule. They are continually added this way to synthesize polymers. o Condensation synthesis creates bonds between the monomers in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. o Nucleic acids on the other hand are polymerized by a nucleophilic attack , which has a similar product to condensation synthesis. - Carbohydrates o Are neither an acid nor a base. They are alcohols and aldehyde/keytone o Monosaccharides are simple sugars (monomers – single units) that make up complex carbohydrates. o Ratio of all simple sugars: CO + H O + light CH O + O o Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides and are used as major sources of energy for cells. o Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of sugar that are harvested by cells through respiration. o Disaccharides are formed by enzymes that combine 2 monosaccharides through glycosidic linkages. Glucose + Glucose Maltose Glucose + Galactose Lactose Glucose + Fructose Sucrose o α-linkages are when the –OH group is below the plane of sugars. β -linkages occur when the –OH group is above the plane of sugars. These linkages determine the properties of the carbohydrates and whether the polymer can be broken down into monomers. o Polysaccharides are long chains of carbohydrates with several thousands of monomers. Shorter chains are known as oligosaccharides (5-20 sugar molecules). Storage polysaccharides include starch (glucose, amylase, and amylopectin) and glycogen, a highly branched polysaccharide found in the liver and muscles. Structural polysaccharides include cellulose (major component of cell wall, can’t be degraded by cellulose), callose (formed at injured areas of a plant), and chitin, a major
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Josephine Do jnd543 structural component of exoskeletons of insects and fungal cell walls. They β-linked and not digestible by humans. - Lipids o Are highly nonpolar and don’t mix with water (hydrophobic). It is soluble in organic solvents like ether and chloroform. o Can be used as a storage of energy, insulation against heat loss, cushioning for vital organs, or be serviceable as vitamins, pigments, growth hormones, and regulators. It is also a structural component of the lipid bilayer of the biological membranes. o Triglycerides or fats Glycerol (3-carbon alcohol) can be combined with fatty acids to make fat in the form of mono-, di-, or triglycerides depending on the number of fatty acids. Bonded through ester linkages.
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This note was uploaded on 08/26/2011 for the course CH 302 taught by Professor Holcombe during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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BIO OUTLINE - Josephine Do jnd543 BIO 311C Final Review...

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