India - India On July 1 2010 India introduced a nationwide...

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India On July 1, 2010 India introduced a nationwide carbon tax of 50 rupees per metric tonne ($1.07/t) of coal both produced and imported into India. [45] In India coal is used to power more than half of the country’s electricity generation. [46] India's total coal production is estimated to reach 571.87 million tons in the year ending March, 2010 and is expected to import around 100 million tons. The carbon tax expects to raise 25 billion rupees ($535 million) for the financial year 2010–2011. According to Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee, the clean energy tax will help to finance a National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF). [46] Industry bodies have not favored the levy and fear that the resultant higher price of coal could trigger inflation. [45] While many remain apprehensive, a carbon tax is a step towards helping India meet their voluntary target to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit of gross domestic product by 25% from 2005 levels by 2020. Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh told reporters in June 2010 that a domestic tax should come before a global carbon tax, and India has imposed one while others debate the issue. [46] [47] Japan Currently Japan does not have any carbon tax regulations. In December 2009, nine industry groupings opposed the carbon tax at the opening day of the Copenhagen climate conference stating that "Japan should not consider a carbon tax as it would damage the economy which is already among the world's most energy efficient". The industry groupings represented the oil, cement, paper, chemical, gas, electric power, auto manufacturing and electronics, and information technology sectors. The sectors state that "the government has neither studied nor explained thoroughly enough why such a carbon tax is needed, how effective and fair it is and how the payments are to be used." [48] In 2005, an environmental tax proposed by Japanese authorities was also delayed due to major opposition from the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ), other industries and consumers. The delay was "to avoid putting too much economic burden on end-users as they were already paying heavy taxes on fossil fuels amid high oil prices." The tax that was to be implemented would be 2,400 yen ($20.85 in 2005 dollars) on a tonne of
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carbon dioxide emitted from fuels. Tax on coal would be about 1.58 yen per kilogram and that on gasoline 1.52 yen per litre (4.3 cents per gallon in 2005 dollars). Officials estimated that the tax would generate income of 37 billion yen a year for the government and result in a payment of 2,100 yen per year for an average household. [49] In Europe a number of countries have imposed energy taxes or energy taxes based partly on carbon content. [17]
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This note was uploaded on 08/26/2011 for the course GEOGRAPHY 135 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '11 term at UCSB.

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India - India On July 1 2010 India introduced a nationwide...

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