Lecture8 - HA H + + A- K a = [H + ] [A-] / [HA] K a...

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Acids, Base, pH, Ionization Constants Reading: 14.1 to 14.6 HW: Page 689 # 21, 27, 33, 35, 39, 43, 49, 53, 65, 77, 81, 83, 89, 95, 101
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Theory Acid Base Arrhenius Produce H 3 O + (H + ) in water Produce OH - in water Bronsted- Lowery Donate H + (proton) Receive H +
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Conjugate Pairs *Acid / Base pair that differ by only an H +
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Acid, Base Reactions Identify acid, base, conjugate pairs NH 4 + + CN -   NH 3 + HCN CO 3 2- + HF HCO 3 - + F - HSO 4 - + HCl H 2 SO 4 + Cl -
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Acid Ionization Strong Acid HCl   H +  + Cl -   0%         100% Weak Acid HCN   H +  + CN -   99%            1%
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Relative Strength of Conjugate Pairs
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Autoionization of Water H 2 O ↔ H + + OH - K w = [H + ][OH - ] = 10 -14 at 25°C *In water: [H + ] = [OH - ] = 10 -7
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Aqueous Solutions *All aqueous solutions have H + and OH - *All aqueous solutions: [H + ][OH - ] = 10 -14 *Acid Solutions: [H + ] > [OH - ] *Base Solutions: [H + ] < [OH - ] *Neutral Solutions: [H + ] = [OH - ]
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pH pH = -log [H + ] [H + ][OH - ] = 10 -14 pOH = -log [OH - ] pH + pOH = 14
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Solution [H + ] [OH - ] pH pOH 1 10 -2 2 10 -5 3 8 4 11
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Acid Ionization Constant HA + H 2 O ↔ H 3 O + + A - or
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Unformatted text preview: HA H + + A- K a = [H + ] [A-] / [HA] K a measures acid strength Base Ionization Constant B + H 2 O BH + + OH- K b = [BH + ] [OH-] / [B] K b measures base strength K a , K b of Conjugates For HA: K a = [H + ] [A-] / [HA] For A-: K b = [HA] [OH-] / [A-] K a x K b = [H + ] x [OH-] = 10-14 pH and K a Find pH of each acid. 0.10 M HCl (large K a ) 0.10 M HF (K a = 7.2 x 10-4 ) 0.10 M HCN (K a = 4.0 x 10-10 ) pH and Acid Concentration Find pH of each CH 3 COOH(aq) solution (K a = 1.8 x 10-5 ). 1.0 M 0.5 M 0.1 M pH to Determine K a A 0.15 M solution of unknown weak acid has pH 4.90. K a ? pH and K b Find the pH of each base. 0.1 M NH 3 (K b = 1.8 x 10-5 ) 0.1 M SO 3 2-(K b = 1.6 x 10-7 ) 0.1 M NO 2-(K b = 2.2 x 10-11 ) K b from pH A 0.45 M solution of weak base has a pH of 10.3. K b ?...
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Lecture8 - HA H + + A- K a = [H + ] [A-] / [HA] K a...

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