Subpart-L - OSHA Subpart L: Scaffolds 1926.451 Page 272...

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Unformatted text preview: OSHA Subpart L: Scaffolds 1926.451 Page 272 (a)”Capacity” (1) ……each scaffold and scaffold (1) each component shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least 4 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to it. or 1926.451 Page 273 (b) "Scaffold platform construction“ (b) "Scaffold (1)(i) Each platform unit (e.g., scaffold plank, (1)(i) fabricated plank, fabricated deck, or fabricated platform) shall be installed so that the space between adjacent units and the space between the platform and the uprights is no more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide…… wide…… 1926.451 Page 273 (b)(5)(i) Each end of a platform 10 feet or less in (b)(5)(i) length shall not extend over its support more than 12 inches (30 cm) unless the platform is designed and installed so that the cantilevered portion of the platform is able to support employees and/or materials without tipping, or has guardrails which block employee access to the cantilevered end. block (b)(5)(ii) Each platform greater than 10 feet in length shall not extend over its support more than 18 inches (46 cm)…… 18 1926.451 Page 273 (b)(7) On scaffolds where platforms are (b)(7) overlapped to create a long platform, the overlap shall occur only over supports, and shall not be less than 12 inches (30 cm) unless the platforms are nailed together or otherwise restrained to prevent movement. otherwise 1926.451 Page 273 (c) “Criteria for supported scaffolds” (2)(v) Fork-lifts shall not be used to support (2)(v) scaffold platforms unless the entire platform is attached to the fork and the fork-lift is not moved horizontally while the platform is occupied. occupied. 1926.451 Page 274-275 (e) “Access” (2)(i) Portable, hook-on, and attachable ladders shall (2)(i) be positioned so as not to tip the scaffold; be (ii) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall be positioned so that their bottom rung is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level; supporting (2)(iii) When hook-on and attachable ladders are used on a supported scaffold more than 35 feet (10.7 m) high, they shall have rest platforms at 35(10.7 foot (10.7 m) maximum vertical intervals. 1926.451 Page 274-275 (e)(2)(iv) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall be (e)(2)(iv) specifically designed for use with the type of scaffold used; scaffold (2)(v) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall have a minimum rung length of 11 1/2 inches (29 cm); and and (2)(vi) Hook-on and attachable ladders shall have uniformly spaced rungs with a maximum spacing between rungs of 16 3/4 inches. between 1926.451 Page 275 (e)(3)(i) Be positioned such that their bottom (e)(3)(i) step is not more than 24 inches (61 cm) above the scaffold supporting level above 1926.451 Page 276 (g) “Fall protection” (1) Each employee on a scaffold more than 10 (1) feet (3.1 m) above a lower level shall be protected from falling to that lower level. protected 1926.451 Page 276 (g)(1)(vi) Each employee performing (g)(1)(vi) overhand bricklaying operations from a supported scaffold shall be protected from falling from all open sides and ends of the scaffold (except at the side next to the wall being laid) by the use of a personal fall arrest system or guardrail system (with minimum 200 pound toprail capacity). minimum 1926.451 Page 276 (g)(3)(iv) Vertical lifelines, independent (g)(3)(iv) support lines, and suspension ropes shall not be attached to each other, nor shall they be attached to or use the same point of anchorage, nor shall they be attached to the same point on the scaffold or personal fall arrest system. arrest 1926.451 Page 276-277 (g)(4)(ii) The top edge height of toprails or equivalent (g)(4)(ii) member on supported scaffolds manufactured or placed in service after January 1, 2000 shall be installed between 38 inches (0.97 m) and 45 inches (1.2 m) above the platform surface. The top edge height on supported scaffolds manufactured and placed in service before January 1, 2000, and on all suspended scaffolds where both a guardrail and a personal fall arrest system are required shall be between 36 inches (0.9 m) and 45 inches (1.2 m). When conditions warrant, the height of the top edge may exceed the 45-inch height, provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of paragraph (g)(4). (g)(4). 1926.452 Page 278 (b)(10) Tube and coupler scaffolds over 125 (b)(10) feet in height shall be designed by a registered professional engineer registered 1926.452 Page 278 (f) "Horse scaffolds." (1) Scaffolds shall not be constructed or arranged (1) more than two tiers or 10 feet (3.0 m) in height, whichever is less. whichever (2) When horses are arranged in tiers, each horse (2) shall be placed directly over the horse in the tier below. below. (3) When horses are arranged in tiers, the legs of (3) each horse shall be nailed down or otherwise secured to prevent displacement. secured 1926.452 Page 280 (w) “Mobile scaffolds” (6)(i) The surface on which the scaffold is (6)(i) being moved is within 3 degrees of level, and free of pits, holes, and obstructions and Subpart L Appendix A Page 284 (m) "Crawling boards (chicken ladders)." (m) Crawling boards shall be not less than 10 inches wide and 1 inch thick, with cleats having a minimum 1 x 1 1/2 inch crosshaving sectional area. The cleats shall be equal in sectional length to the width of the board and spaced at equal intervals not to exceed 24 inches. at Subpart M – Fall Protection 1926.500 Page 289 (b)”Definition” "Body harness" means straps which may be "Body secured about the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system. system. 1926.500 Page 289 "Controlled access zone (CAZ)" means an "Controlled area in which certain work (e.g., overhand bricklaying) may take place without the use of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, or safety net systems and access to the zone is controlled. the 1926.500 Page 289 "Hole" means a gap or void 2 inches (5.1 cm) or "Hole" more in its least dimension, in a floor, roof, or other walking/working surface. other "Leading edge" means the edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking/working surface (such as the deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking, or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed. A leading edge is considered to be an "unprotected side and edge" during periods when it is not actively and continuously under construction. actively 1926.500 Page 289 "Low-slope roof" means a roof having a slope less than or equal to 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal). to "Opening" means a gap or void 30 inches (76 cm) or more high and 18 inches (48 cm) or more wide, in a wall or partition, through which employees can fall to a lower level. which 1926.500 Page 290 "Rope grab" means a deceleration device "Rope which travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction, engages the lifeline and locks so as to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually employs the principle of inertial locking, cam/level locking, or both. locking, 1926.500 Page 290 "Steep roof" means a roof having a slope "Steep greater than 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal). greater "Unprotected sides and edges" means any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a walking/working surface, e.g., floor, roof, ramp, or runway where there is no wall or guardrail system at least 39 inches (1.0 m) high. inches 1926.500 Page 290 "Warning line system" means a barrier "Warning erected on a roof to warn employees that they are approaching an unprotected roof side or edge, and which designates an area in which roofing work may take place without the use of guardrail, body belt, or safety net systems to protect employees in the area. the 1926.501 Page 290 (b)(1) "Unprotected sides and edges." Each (b)(1) employee on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems. personal 1926.501 Page 290 (b)(2) "Leading edges." (b)(2)(i) Each employee who is constructing a leading edge 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems. Exception: When the employer can demonstrate that it is infeasible or creates a greater hazard to use these systems, the employer shall develop and implement a fall protection plan which meets the requirements of paragraph (k) of 1926.502. 1926.502. 1926.501 Page 290 (b)(2)(ii) Each employee on a walking/working (b)(2)(ii) surface 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above a lower level where leading edges are under construction, but who is not engaged in the leading edge work, shall be protected from falling by a guardrail system, safety net system, or personal fall arrest system. If a guardrail system is chosen to provide the fall protection, and a controlled access zone has already been established for leading edge work, the control line may be used in lieu of a guardrail along the edge that parallels the leading edge. along 1926.501 Page 290 (b)(4) "Holes." (i) Each employee on walking/working surfaces shall be protected from falling through holes (including skylights) more than 6 feet (1.8 m) above lower levels, by personal fall arrest systems, covers, or guardrail systems erected around such holes. holes. 1926.501 Page 290 (b)(5) "Formwork and reinforcing steel." Each (b)(5) employee on the face of formwork or reinforcing steel shall be protected from falling 6 feet (1.8 m) or more to lower levels by personal fall arrest systems, safety net systems, or positioning device systems. net 1926.501 Page 290 (b)(7) "Excavations." (i) Each employee at the edge of an excavation 6 feet (1.8 m) or more in depth shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, fences, or barricades when the excavations are not readily seen because of plant growth or other visual barrier; barrier; (ii) Each employee at the edge of a well, pit, shaft, and similar excavation 6 feet (1.8 m) or more in depth shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, fences, barricades, or covers. systems, 1926.501 Page 290 (b)(9) "Overhand bricklaying and related work." (i) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each employee performing overhand bricklaying and related work 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels, shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, or shall work in a controlled access zone. controlled (9)(ii) Each employee reaching more than 10 inches (25 cm) below the level of the walking/working surface on which they are working, shall be protected from falling by a guardrail system, safety net system, or personal fall arrest system. safety 1926.501 Page 291 (b)(10) "Roofing work on Low-slope roofs." each (b)(10) employee engaged in roofing activities on lowemployee slope roofs, with unprotected sides and edges 6 slope feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, or a combination of warning line system and guardrail system, warning line system and safety net system, or warning line system and personal fall arrest system, or warning line system and safety monitoring system. monitoring 1926.501 Page 291 (b)(11) "Steep roofs." Each employee on a (b)(11) steep roof with unprotected sides and edges 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems with toeboards, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems. or 1926.501 Page 291 (b)(13) "Residential construction." Each employee (b)(13) engaged in residential construction activities 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety net system, or personal fall arrest system unless another provision in paragraph (b) of this section provides for an alternative fall protection measure. Exception: When the employer can demonstrate that it is infeasible or creates a greater hazard to use these systems, the employer shall develop and implement a fall protection plan which meets the requirements of paragraph (k) of 1926.502. requirements 1926.501 Page 291 (b)(14) "Wall openings." Each employee working (b)(14) on, at, above, or near wall openings on, (including those with chutes attached) where the outside bottom edge of the wall opening is 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels and the inside bottom edge of the wall opening is less than 39 inches (1.0 m) above the walking/working surface, shall be protected from falling by the use of a guardrail system, a safety net system, or a personal fall arrest system. fall 1926.501 Page 291 (c) "Protection from falling objects." When an (c) employee is exposed to falling objects, the employer shall have each employee wear a hard hat and shall implement one of the following measures: and (1) Erect toeboards, screens, or guardrail systems to (1) prevent objects from falling from higher levels; or, prevent (2) Erect a canopy structure and keep potential fall (2) objects far enough from the edge of the higher level so that those objects would not go over the edge if they were accidentally displaced; or, they 1926.501 Page 291 (c)(3) Barricade the area to which objects (c)(3) could fall, prohibit employees from entering the barricaded area, and keep objects that may fall far enough away from the edge of a higher level so that those objects would not go over the edge if they were accidentally displaced. accidentally 1926.502 Page 291 (b) "Guardrail systems." (b)(1) Top edge height of top rails, or equivalent guardrail system members, shall be 42 inches (1.1 m) plus or minus 3 inches (8 cm) above the walking/working level. When conditions warrant, the height of the top edge may exceed the 45-inch height, provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of this paragraph. other Note: When employees are using stilts, the top edge height of the top rail, or equivalent member, shall be increased an amount equal to the height of the stilts. stilts. 1926.502 Page 291 (b)(2) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical (b)(2) members, or equivalent intermediate structural members shall be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working surface when there is no wall or parapet wall at least 21 inches (53 cm) high. least (iii) Intermediate members (such as balusters), when used between posts, shall be not more than 19 inches (48 cm) apart. inches 1926.502 Page 291 (b)(3) Guardrail systems shall be capable of (b)(3) withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds (890 N) applied within 2 inches (5.1 cm) of the top edge, in any outward or downward direction, at any point along the top edge. point 1926.502 Page 291 (b)(4) When the 200 pound (890 N) test load (b)(4) specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section is applied in a downward direction, the top edge of the guardrail shall not deflect to a height less than 39 inches (1.0 m) above the walking/working level. Guardrail system components selected and constructed in accordance with the Appendix B to subpart M of this part will be deemed to meet this requirement. requirement. 1926.502 Page 291 (b)(9) Top rails and midrails shall be at least (b)(9) one-quarter inch (0.6 cm) nominal diameter or thickness to prevent cuts and lacerations. If wire rope is used for top rails, it shall be flagged at not more than 6-foot intervals with high-visibility material. with 1926.502 Page 292 (b)(13) When guardrail systems are used around (b)(13) holes which are used as points of access holes (such as ladderways), they shall be provided with a gate, or be so offset that a person cannot walk directly into the hole. (b)(14) Guardrail systems used on ramps and runways shall be erected along each unprotected side or edge. (b)(15) Manila, plastic or synthetic rope being used for top rails or midrails shall be inspected as frequently as necessary to ensure that it continues to meet the strength requirements of paragraph (b) to (3) of this section. 1926.502 Page 292 (c) "Safety net systems." (1) Safety nets shall be installed as close as practicable under the walking/working surface on which employees are working, but in no case more than 30 feet (9.1 m) below such level. When nets are used on bridges, the potential fall area from the walking/working surface to the net shall be unobstructed. unobstructed. (2) Table Table 1926.502 Page 292 (c)(5) Defective nets shall not be used. Safety (c)(5) nets shall be inspected at least once a week for wear, damage, and other deterioration. Defective components shall be removed from service. Safety nets shall also be inspected after any occurrence which could affect the integrity of the safety net system. affect 1926.502 Page 292 (c)(7) The maximum size of each safety net mesh (c)(7) opening shall not exceed 36 square inches opening (230 cm) nor be longer than 6 inches (15 cm) on any side, and the opening, measured center-to-center of mesh ropes or webbing, shall not be longer than 6 inches (15 cm). All mesh crossings shall be secured to prevent enlargement of the mesh opening. opening. 1926.502 Page 292 (d) "Personal fall arrest systems." Personal (d) fall arrest systems and their use shall comply with the provisions set forth below. Effective January 1, 1998, body belts are not acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system. Note: The use of a body belt in a positioning device system is acceptable and is regulated under paragraph (e) of this section. section. 1926.502 Page 292 (d)(3) Dee-rings and snaphooks shall have a minimum (d)(3) tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) tensile (d)(5) Snaphooks shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected to prevent unintentional disengagement of the snaphook by depression of the snaphook keeper by the connected member, or shall be a locking type snaphook designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snaphook by the contact of the snaphook keeper by the connected member. Effective January 1, 1998, only locking type snaphooks shall be used. only 1926.502 Page 292 (d)(8) Horizontal lifelines shall be designed, (d)(8) installed, and used, under the supervision of a qualified person, as part of a complete personal fall arrest system, which maintains a safety factor of at least two. of (d)(9) Lanyards and vertical lifelines shall have a (d)(9) minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds minimum (22.2 kN). (22.2 1926.502 Page 292 (d)(12) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards (d)(12) which automatically limit free fall distance to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN) applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position. position. 1926.502 Page 292 (d)(13) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards (d)(13) which do not limit free fall distance to 2 feet (0.61 m) or less, ripstitch lanyards, and tearing and deforming lanyards shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position. fully 1926.502 Page 292 (d)(15) Anchorages used for attachment of (d)(15) personal fall arrest equipment shall be independent of any anchorage being used to support or suspend platforms and capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) per employee attached, or shall be designed, installed, and used as follows: installed, 1926.502 Page 292-293 (d)(16) Personal fall arrest systems, when stopping a fall, (d)(16) shall: shall: (i) limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds (4 kN) when used with a body belt; pounds (ii) limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds (8 kN) when used with a body harness; pounds (iii) be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet (1.8 m), nor contact any lower level; more (iv) bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07 m); and, feet (v) have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8 m), or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less. system, 1926.502 Page 293 (d)(17) The attachment point of the body belt (d)(17) shall be located in the center of the wearer's back. The attachment point of the body harness shall be located in the center of the wearer's back near shoulder level, or above the wearer's head the (d)(22) Body belts shall be at least one and five-eighths (1 5/8) inches (4.1 cm) wide. five-eighths 1926.502 Page 293 (e) "Positioning device systems." Positioning (e) device systems and their use shall conform to the following provisions: (1) Positioning devices shall be rigged such that an employee cannot free fall more than 2 feet (.9 m). feet 1926.502 Page 293 (g) "Controlled access zones." (g) (g)(1)(ii) When erecting precast concrete members, the control line shall be erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) nor more than 60 feet (18 m) or half the length of the member being erected, whichever is less, from the leading edge. less, (g)(1)(iii) The control line shall extend along the entire length of the unprotected or leading edge and shall be approximately parallel to the unprotected or leading edge. unprotected 1926.502 Page 294 (g)(2)(i) The controlled access zone shall be (g)(2)(i) defined by a control line erected not less than 10 feet (3.1 m) nor more than 15 feet (4.5 m) from the working edge. (4.5 1926.502 Page 294 (i) "Covers." (i) (1) Covers located in roadways and vehicular aisles shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least twice the maximum axle load of the largest vehicle expected to cross over the cover. (2) All other covers shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least twice the weight of employees, equipment, and materials that may be imposed on the cover at any one time. time. (3) All covers shall be secured when installed so as to prevent accidental displacement by the wind, equipment, or employees. employees. (4) All covers shall be color coded or they shall be marked with the word "HOLE" or "COVER" to provide warning of the hazard. hazard. 1926.502 Page 294 (j) "Protection from falling objects." Falling object protection (j) shall comply with the following provisions: (1) Toeboards, when used as falling object protection, shall be erected along the edge of the overhead walking/working surface for a distance sufficient to protect employees below. surface (2) Toeboards shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 N) applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the toeboard. toeboard. (3) Toeboards shall be a minimum of 3 1/2 inches (9 cm) in vertical height from their top edge to the level of the walking/ vertical working surface. They shall have not more than 1/4 inch (0.6 working cm) clearance above the walking/working surface. They shall be solid or have openings not over 1 inch (2.5 cm) in greatest dimension. dimension. (6)(i) No materials or equipment except masonry and mortar shall be stored within 4 feet (1.2 m) of the working edge. shall 1926.502 Page 294 (k) "Fall protection plan." This option is available only to (k) employees engaged in leading edge work, precast concrete erection work, or residential construction work (See 1926.501(b)(2), (b)(12), and (b)(13)) who can demonstrate that it is infeasible or it creates a greater hazard to use conventional fall protection equipment. The fall protection plan must conform to the following provisions. (1) The fall protection plan shall be prepared by a qualified person and developed specifically for the site where the leading edge work, precast concrete work, or residential construction work is being performed and the plan must be maintained up to date. maintained 1926.503 Page 295 (a) "Training Program." (1) The employer shall provide a training program for each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. The program shall enable each employee to recognize the hazards of falling and shall train each employee in the procedures to be followed in order to minimize these hazards. order (2) The employer shall assure that each employee has been trained, as necessary, by a competent person qualified in the following areas: person 1926.503 Page 295 (b) "Certification of training." (b) (1) If the employer relies on training conducted by another employer or completed prior to the effective date of this section, the certification record shall indicate the date the employer determined the prior training was adequate rather than the date of actual training. the 1926.503 Page 295 (c) “Retraining” (1) Changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete; or training (2) Changes in the types of fall protection systems or equipment to be used render previous training obsolete; or obsolete; (3) Inadequacies in an affected employee's knowledge or use of fall protection systems or equipment indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill. retained ...
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