Lecture8EnergyIssues

Lecture8EnergyIssues - Energy Issues – General and...

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Unformatted text preview: Energy Issues – General and Construction Lecture 8 Charles J. Kibert Overview • Energy Terminology • Energy Consumption • Environmental Impacts • Renewable Energy • Emerging Technologies • Building Energy Consumption Key Energy Terminology • Energy: the capacity for doing work or heat – BTU, wh, Kwh, cal, Kcal – Note: work = force x distance • Power: rate of energy use (1 watt = 1 j/s) • Enthalpy: internal energy of a body • Entropy: measure of unavailable energy; measure of disorder • Exergy: the part of energy that can be converted to all other forms; how large a quantity of purely mechanical work can be extracted from a system. As exergy decreases, entropy increases. • Embodied Energy: energy (based on source used) needed to extract, produce, install, and dispose of a product plus transport energy between stages • Emergy: energy required to make a product or service in solar energy starting units. Units used by Systems Ecology (H.T. Odum) • Carnot’s Law: limit on efficiency of a heat engine = 1-(Tsink/Tsource) note: T’s in absolute degrees Flow of energy and matter through a system Quality is consumed during the conversion of matter and energy The quality of different forms of energy Form of energy Quality Index (% of exergy) Extra Superior Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Electrical Energy 100 100 100 Superior Nuclear Energy Sunlight Chemical Energy Hot Steam District Heating Almost 100 95 95 60 30 Inferior Waste Heat 5 Valueless Heat Radiation from Earth http://www.holon.se/folke/kurs/Distans/Ekofys/fysbas/exergy/exergybasics.shtml The actual efficiency of a steam engine operating with 340 F steam and rejecting energy to the atmosphere at 68 F is 18%. What is its Carnot efficiency? BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2009 10 World primary energy consumption patterns World Consumption Million tonnes oil equivalent Oil consumption per capita Consumption per capita 2008 Tonnes Chart of crude oil prices since 1861 Crude oil prices 1861 - 2008 US dollar per barrel World events Major oil trade movements Major trade movements 2008 Trade flows worldwide (million tonnes) Natural gas reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios Years 2008 by region Natural gas consumption per capita Consumption per capita 2008 Tonnes oil equivalent Major gas trade movements Major trade movements Trade flows worldwide (billion cubic metres) Proved coal reserves at end 2008 Proved reserves at end of 2008 Thousand million tonnes (anthracite and bituminous coal shown in brackets) Transportation and Energy Climate Change and Transportation Grams of carbon equivalent per passenger km Energy & CO2 • Longer chain fuel, more CO2 • Order: Methane & Natural Gas, Oil, Coal, Wood (in order of increasing carbons) • CO2 levels at highest point in 160,000 years • "The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for March 2010 was the warmest on record...
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2011 for the course BCN 6585 taught by Professor Kibert during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Lecture8EnergyIssues - Energy Issues – General and...

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