# 1 - BCN 3431 Steel Design CONNECTIONS Most structural...

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BCN 3431 - Steel Design CONNECTIONS Most structural failures are the result of poorly designed or detailed connections. In many cases, the connections are not designed by the same engineer who designs the rest of the structure, but by the steel fabricator who furnishes the material for the project. Modern steel structures are connected by welding or bolting or by a combination of both. A welded connection is often simpler in concept and requires few, if any, holes. However, skilled workers are required for welding, and inspection can be difficult and costly. Quality welding can be more easily ensured under the controlled conditions of a fabricating shop. Welds are weak in shear and are usually assumed to fail in shear, regardless of the direction of loading. Category of Connections According to the type of loading: - Shear, cases (a), (b) & (c) - Tension, case (d) - Shear and Tension, case (e) 1

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Simple Connections: If the line of action of the resultant force to be resisted passes through the center of gravity of the connection, each part of the connection is assumed to resist an equal share of the load. Eccentric Connections: When the line of action of the load does not act through the center of gravity of the connection, the load is not resisted equally by each fastener. Types of Bolts: - Common bolts (unfinished bolts) ASTM A307 - High Strength bolts, ASTM A325 and ASTM A490 A490 bolts have a higher ultimate tensile strength than A325, and are more expensive, but usually fewer are required. Modes of Failure in Bolted Shear Connections: a. Failure of the fastener f v = P/A (single shear) f v = P/2A (double shear) b. Failure of the parts being connected 1. Failure resulting from excessive tension, shear, or bending in the parts being connected (Example: tension on both
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1 - BCN 3431 Steel Design CONNECTIONS Most structural...

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