L 16 axial & limb muscles

L 16 axial & limb muscles - 3. Lateral group 3 or 4...

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TRUNK MUSCLES Fish trunk muscles = myomeres Horizontal septum not present in jawless fishes. Divides muscles into EPAXIAL & HYPAXIAL
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Overlap ensures smooth undulations Exotendon transfers energy to tail and stores energy when stretched
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In salamanders and reptiles body still retains importance in locomotion so trunk remains segmented into myomeres TETRAPODS
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2 epaxial muscle groups • dorsalis trunci – remain segmented • interspinalis – deep, connect adjacent vertebrae EPAXIAL
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In birds and mammals locomotion less important, support body, mediate spine movements, move head, ventilate lungs & segmentation lost
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EPAXIAL transversospinalis shorter, between several segments longissimus dorsi from sacrum to neck iliocostalis from sacrum and pelvis to ribs
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1. Subvertebral – deep, quadratus lumborum. Support, bends spine 2. Ventral – rectus abdominis. Supports abdomen
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Unformatted text preview: 3. Lateral group 3 or 4 layers external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis + intercostals HYPAXIAL N.B. no traces of segmentation APPENDICULAR MUSCLES Fins not for propulsion, used in lift, stability, braking, maneuvering Support body, major propulsive force, often major muscle mass of body extensor flexor Dorsal extensors, also abductors Ventral flexors, also adductors The splayed position of reptiles required powerful adductors, because of more erect limbs in mammals this power no longer required Mammals - agility of movement means both dorsal and ventral muscles have multiplied and subdivided Dorsal = abduct appendicular muscles, extensors limb muscles Ventral = adduct appendicular muscles, flexors limb muscles Some muscles associated with scapula (trapezius) are branchiomeric muscles, evolved from cucullaris...
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L 16 axial & limb muscles - 3. Lateral group 3 or 4...

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