L27 endocrine - time melatonin synthesis is flexible and...

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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Exocrine vs endocrine – 2 dozen glands discharge product into fluids (blood, CSF, lymph) Oldest system – even single cells communicate, pheromones, allomones Hormones either derived from amino acids (epithelial organs) or steroids from cholesterol (mesodermal organs). If not soluble in water, transported bound to carrier proteins. Concentration v. low – 10 -12M
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If water soluble won’t get through membrane so need receptor. Also ensures specificity. Steroid hormones pass through membrane and bind to cytoplasmic receptor, also ensures specificity
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PINEAL GLAND – The Third Eye
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Pinealocytes produce MELATONIN (derived from tryptophan, serotonin is intermediate).
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Melatonin output is cyclical and it is produced at night Cyclical production controlled by cyclical regulation of AANAT (100-fold higher at night) variation.
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Regulation of AANAT controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus in hypothalamus
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Fig. 15.6 SCN activity entrained by light from eye. Thus duration of night-
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Unformatted text preview: time melatonin synthesis is flexible and dictated by night length. Thus seasonal variation is controlled by this way too. What is entrainment? What happens in constant dark? SCN has endogenous oscillator – biological clock CLOCK and PER genes oscillate So pineal regulates sleep, hormone levels, appetite, excretion, diurnal and seasonal cycles, gonad development and reproductive cycles suppresses libido, camouflage, skin colouration. Lampreys have 2 extra eyes, pineal and parietal. Strong light inhibits neuronal activity, no light AANAT activity induced, melatonin produced Tadpoles and frogs have a frontal organ = epiphysis = pineal Sphenodon & squamates well developed including cornea and lens = parietal eye In these animals e.g. frogs melatonin production in dark causes the skin to blanch by concentrating the melanin pigment in melanophores. How it’s effects was discovered in 1917....
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This note was uploaded on 08/28/2011 for the course ZOO 3713c taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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L27 endocrine - time melatonin synthesis is flexible and...

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