(B) Architecture in Pre-History

(B) Architecture in Pre-History - - Large stone...

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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE ARC 1701 Architectural History for Non-Majors Summer Term  (B) Architecture in Pre-History (01) Paleolithic Period: "Old Stone Age" Man as hunter-gatherer - Lascaux Cave Paintings, SE France (c. 10,000 BCE ) - Place of meaning and ritual = architecture (02) Neolithic Period: "New Stone Age" Man in agrarian society - Development of family clusters and later urban settlements - Stable food supply allows settlement vs nomadic lifestyle - Cooperation and specialization necessary for urban growth - Religious systems evolved to deal with nature (03) Early cities evolve in Eastern Mediterranean area - Jericho, present day Palestine (c. 8000 BCE ) - Catal Huyuk, Anatolia, present day Turkey (6500-5700 BCE ) - Organic urban form without clear hierarchy - No organized street system (04) Megalith Structures in Western Europe (Neolithic Cultures)
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Unformatted text preview: - Large stone construction technology- "Cyclopean" masonry dry laid without mortar- Dolman: tomb or chamber covered by a large roof rock- Menhir: single stone monument or group of stones in a circle- Barrow: shaped earth mound often covering a stone Dolman- Use of stone beam or lintel, and crude corbelled vaulting (05) Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, S. England (c. 3000 - 1500 BCE )- Twenty ton stones moved 300 miles from quarry in Wales- Theories suggest neolithic computer or clock to "read" or predict astronomical events or seasons- Use for seasonal predictability suggests stable agricultural base, elite priesthood to interpret, and enough central authority to coordinate complex construction process O Timber Construction in Neolithic Cultures- Wood Bearing Walls & Wood Frame (Post & Beam)- Wattle and daub construction...
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