(C) Ancient Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent

(C) Ancient Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent -...

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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE ARC 1701 Architectural History for Non-Majors Summer Term  (C) Early Civilizations in the Near East: Mesopotamia (01) Mesopotamia: ( Between the Rivers ) “The Fertile Crescent” - Tigris & Euphrates river valleys: fertile but seasonally unpredictable - Major irrigation and river channelization projects - Crossroad between Asia and the Mediterranean = instability and migrations - Building Technology: limited stone/wood = reeds, mud brick & "burnt" brick - Massive walls and limited use of columns - introduction of "tunnel vault" (02) Sumerian Culture: city states w/ priest-king (c. 4000-2350 BCE ) - First writing appears: "cuneiform" (c. 3500 BCE ) on clay tablets - Uruk (modern Warka): White Temple (c. 3500-3000 BCE ) (03) Akkadian/ First Babylonian Period (2350-1600 BCE ) - Warrior King: Hammurabi: first written code of laws - Ur: Ziggurat of Ur Namu (c. 2100 BCE ) (04) Hittite Domination (1750-1200 BCE ) advantage of chariots and use of iron - Hittite capitol at Hattusas, Turkey: giant “guardian figures”
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