(M) Pre-Colonial Architecture in Africa and the Americas

(M) Pre-Colonial Architecture in Africa and the Americas -...

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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE ARC 1701 Architectural History for Non-Majors Summer Term  Pre-Colonial Cultures in Africa & the Americas: diverse climates & materials (01) Early African Cultures: no archaeology/non-permanent = big knowledge gaps - Regions: Atlantic/Mediterranean Coasts - Sahara desert - sub-Saharan Africa - Nomadic/transient architecture: tents and pole structures - Pole structures w/ wattle & daub, woven or thatched coverings - Adobe used throughout Africa, primary material in Saharan region - Urban planning: compounds w/ palisades, organic forms ordered by culture - Stone masonry: Great Zimbabwe (1000 BCE - 15 th C. CE ) 40,000 population - Upper Nile cultures: Nubian pyramids & obelisks at Aksum and rock-cut structures (13 th C.) in Ethiopia (02) Early Man in the Americas (c.10,000 BCE): migrations across Bearing Straits - Nomadic architecture: teepee, wigwam, longhouses - Timber construction: chickee, shed house, plank house, pit house - Mound builders: Adena culture “serpent” & Mississippian city “Cahokia” - Masonry of stone & adobe: Anasazi @ Mesa Verdi & Chaco Canyon (03) Meso-American Cultures
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