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Review Topic Three

# Review Topic Three - Gases liquids summary Topics...

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Gases, liquids summary Topics: Properties of gases, ideal gas law, kinetic molecular model of gases, non-ideality, intermolecular forces, properties of liquids. Definitions: pressure, absolute zero, STP, molar volume, diffusion, effusion, partial pressure, mean free path, root mean squared, inter/intra- molecular, hydrogen bond, dispersion forces, vapor pressure, boiling point, viscosity, surface tension, capillary action, adhesion/cohesion Calculations: Ideal gas law static problems; ideal gas law comparison/ dynamic problems; combine ideal gas law with equations for mass, density, molecular weight or with stoichiometry Applications: assign appropriate intermolecular force to a molecule Ranking: relative gas speeds; non-ideality of gases, physical properties of liquids, intermolecular force strength Gases For gases always work in Kelvin. Temperature (K) = Temperature (˚C) + 273.15 STP = 1 atm, 0˚C The molar volume of any ideal gas at STP = 22.414 L Ideal Gas Law : PV = nRT Boyle’s law (P,V), Charles’ law (P, T), and Avagadro’s law (V, n) can all be derived from this Static problems: we know three of the four variables, find the fourth. Dynamic problems: one or more variables are perturbed while the others are held constant. Static problem: What do we know? What is unknown? Do you need to use an equation to find n from m, M, MW, density? Do you need to include stoichiometry? Rearrange the ideal gas law with the unknown on one side. Solve, doing appropriate unit conversions, specially T into Kelvin. 1. If we completely combust 6 moles of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in the presence of excess oxygen in a 22 liter container at 25˚C, what would be the total final pressure of the system in atmospheres? 2. If 56 g of liquid nitrogen evaporates at standard temperature and pressure, what is the final volume of the gaseous nitrogen? 1 2 3

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Dynamic or comparison problem: What changes? p, V What stays constant? T, n Write the initial ideal gas law with all constants on one side. Write the final ideal gas law with all constants on one side. Equate the two. Rearrange so the unknown is one side. Solve, doing appropriate unit conversions, specially T into Kelvin. 3. A sample of sulfur vapor at 100˚C exerts a pressure of 0.75 atm on the walls of its container. If we heat the container to 200˚C while holding all other factors constant, what will be the resulting pressure in the container due to the sulfur vapor? A sample of sulfur vapor at 100˚C exerts a pressure of 0.75 atm on the walls of its container. If we heat the container to 200˚C while holding all other factors constant, what will be the resulting pressure in the container due to the sulfur vapor? Identify what changes? T, p Identify what stays constant? V,n Initial state equation: = nRV = constant T 1 p 1 Final state equation: = nRV = constant The two constants are equal = Rearrange and solve for the unknown: p 2 = T 1 p 1 T 2 We can leave the units of V and p alone as long as they are the same units for both states. We must change T to Kelvin.
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Review Topic Three - Gases liquids summary Topics...

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