1-423-08FAOxStudent - Fatty Acid Catabolism Objectives-Know...

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Fatty Acid Catabolism Objectives -Know the structures of the three most common fatty acids: palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and oleic (18:1 (a 9) What does saturated, unsaturated mean? -Know the structure of triacylglycerols (also called triglycerides) -How do fatty acids and triacylglycerols get around in the body, from the digestive system, and from the adipocytes? -How are fatty acids activated? Why? -Understand the significance and mechanism of the acyl carnitine/ carnitine shuttle. What enzymes are involved? What is the point? -Understand the function and know the sub-cellular locations of the enzymes of the a oxidation pathway. -Know which type of reaction (general enzyme type name) occurs at each step in the a oxidation pathway, e.g. hydration, oxidation, thiolysis. You do NOT need to know structures and specific enzyme names. -How much ATP is made from the breakdown of palmitic acid? From stearic acid? Be able to explain how/where this ATP is made -Understand that unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acids can be broken down via the a - oxidation pathways, but some extra enzymes are involved, and a little less ATP is generated. You do NOT need to know the specifics of these pathways. -Know the significance of ketone bodies and where they are formed. Where are they used? What is the benefit of their formation in the liver, to the liver? What is the benefit of their use in the brain, muscle, etc.? Outline I. Where we are: we have looked at how carbohydrates are used as fuel; now we will explore lipid catabolism. II. Fat is an excellent fuel: Know the structures of triacylglycerols and the most common fatty acids. III. Fats in your diet to the rest of your body -Fats in foods are usually in form of triacylglycerols: glycerol backbone, three fatty acids -Bile salts: act as intestinal detergents, allow water-soluble enzymes (lipases) to come in contact with water-insoluble triacylglycerols -Lipases: enzymes that degrade lipids -Breakdown of triacylglycerols
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-Crossing of intestinal mucosa -Remaking of triacylglycerols -Transport by lipoproteins (chylomicrons) in bloodstream IV. Stored fats to rest of body - Fat is stored in adipocytes (filled w/ triacylglycerol droplets) -When other cells in body need fuel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) are broken down: TAG lipase, a cAMP story, gives glycerol plus three fatty acids -Fatty acids carried via transport protein, serum albumin, from adipocytes to muscle, liver cells -Glycerol backbone can enter glycolysis V. Fatty acid degradation occurs in three stages: activation, transport into matrix, . -oxidation A. Fatty acid activation -Fatty acids ("R-COO - ") interact w/enzymes called fatty acyl-CoA synthetases on inner surface of outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) -These connect a CoASH group to a fatty acid using ATP; this energizes or activates fatty acids -Fatty acid + CoASH + ATP fatty acyl-CoA + AMP + 2 Pi -The equivalent of 2 ATP are needed for CoA to be added to fatty acid:
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1-423-08FAOxStudent - Fatty Acid Catabolism Objectives-Know...

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