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Intro to Communication and Information

Intro to Communication and Information - EXAM 2 CHAPTER 7...

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EXAM 2 CHAPTER 7 – verbal communication MESSAGE PRODUCTION Encoding and Decoding Encoding - converting an idea into a message i.e. each person is putting forth a good deal of effort to provide information and to create particular kinds of impressions. The individuals involved have specific goals in mind and communicate in ways designed to achieve them. Decode- translate the message into an idea i.e. we hope that individuals for whom our messages are prepared will translate the message into the idea we intended. Intended vs. unintended messages 2 categories of messages we produce: 1. Verbal 2. Nonverbal PROCESS- versus Meaning-Centered Models of Communication Major models of communication emphasize the process of communication: they focus on message transmission and are concerned with the channel, sender, receiver, noise and feedback. Different views of communication through communication models- (process & meaning views) 1) Focusing on sending and receiving/ the process model: Advantages: -Emphasizes the sender and receiver - Allow us to examine how messages get lost or distorted & how receivers may miss the message sent i.e. “Brick Red” 2) Focus on communication as the generation of meaning (focus on signs, codes and meaning) - Messages are constructed of signs which produce meaning in interaction with receivers Codes- The systems into which signs are organized Advantage: - Emphasizes the meaning The Nature of LANGUAGE
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Commonality among languages: All spoken languages distinguish between vowels and consonants In nearly all languages the subject precedes the object in declarative sentences. Identifiable patterns & set of rules: 1. Phonology - The way sounds are combined to form words 2. Syntax - The way words are combined into sentences 3. Semantics - The meanings of words on the basis of their relationship to one another and to elements in the environment. 4. Pragmatics - The way in which language is used in practice Physiological factors -Similarities among languages = a result of human physical and mental capacities - Voicing : When the (vocal) cord vibrates as a result of air from the lungs passing over the vocal cords with a greater force than occurs during normal breathing. Vocal cords tighten pitch rises Vocal cords loosen pitch lowers - Primary factors in the creation of vowel sounds (in English): the position of the tongue, lips and jaw -group1: f, v, s, z, th, sh -group2: p, b, t, d, k, g Nasal: b, m, d, n, g (French and English) Cognitive factors -The brain and nervous system control the physiological mechanisms: allow us to sense, make sense of, relate to our environment and one another. -Important areas of the brain for linguistic functioning: Broca’s Area Wenicke’s Area -Both are located in the left half or hemisphere of the brain.
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