ch 3 - Chapter 3 Chapter Learning and Memory by Michael R...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Chapter Learning and Memory by Michael R. Solomon Learning The Learning Process – Learning – Incidental Learning Behavioral Learning Theories – Behavioral Learning Theories Figure 3-1: The Consumer As a “Black Box”: A Behaviorist Perspective on Learning Behavioral Learning Theories – Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov – Repetition – Stimulus Generalization – “Piggybacking” – Masked Branding – Stimulus Discrimination Behavioral Learning Theories – Marketing Applications of Behavioral Learning Principles – Brand Equity – Applications of Repetition – Advertising Wear Out – Applications of Conditioned Product Associations Behavioral Learning Theories – Applications of Stimulus Generalization Applications – – – – Family Branding Product Line Extension Licensing Look-Alike Packaging – Applications of Stimulus Discrimination Behavioral Learning Theories – Instrumental Conditioning – Instrumental Conditioning – B.F. Skinner – Positive Reinforcement – Negative Reinforcement – Punishment Figure 3-2: Four Types of Learning Outcomes Behavioral Learning Theories – Rules by Which Appropriate Reinforcements are Given for a Behavior – – – – Fixed-Interval Reinforcement Variable-Interval Reinforcement Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement Variable-Ratio Reinforcement Behavioral Learning Theories – Applications of Instrumental Conditioning Principles – Reinforcement of Consumption – Frequency Marketing Cognitive Learning Theory – Is Learning Conscious or Not? – Observational Learning Figure 3-3: Components of Observational Learning Cognitive Learning Theory – Applications of Cognitive Learning Principles The Role of Memory in Learning – – – – Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval Figure 3-4: The Memory Process The Role of Memory in Learning – Post Experience Advertising The Role of Memory in Learning – Encoding Information for Later Retrieval – Types of Meaning – Personal Relevance – Flashbulb Memories – Narrative – Memory Systems – Sensory Memory Figure 3-5: Relationships among Memory Systems The Role of Memory in Learning – Short-Term Memory (STM) – Long-Term Memory (LTM) – Storing Information in Memory – Activation Models of Memory – Associative Networks – Knowledge Structures Figure 3-6: An Associative Network for Perfumes The Role of Memory in Learning – Spreading Activation – Memory Trace for an Ad Could Be Stored Memory in One or More of the Following Ways: in – Brand-specific – Ad-specific – Brand Identification – Product Category – Evaluative Reactions – Levels of Knowledge The Role of Memory in Learning – Retrieving Information for Purchase Decisions – Factors Influencing Retrieval – State-Dependent Retrieval – Familiarity and Recall – Salience and Recall – Von Restorff Effect The Role of Memory in Learning – Pictorial Versus Verbal Cues: Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? – Factors Influencing Forgetting – Decay – Part-List Cueing Effect – Products as Memory Markers – Autobiographical Memories The Role of Memory in Learning – The Marketing Power of Nostalgia – Nostalgia – Spontaneous Recovery – Memory and Aesthetic Preferences – Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli – Recognition Versus Recall – The Starch Test The Role of Memory in Learning – Problems with Memory Measures – Response Biases – Memory Lapses – Memory for Facts Versus Feelings ...
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