10 Energetics overview

10 Energetics overview - Biochemistry Education BIOC 423...

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B iochemis±ry ²E duca±ion Department±of±²iochemistry±&±Molecular±²iology University±of±New±Mexico BIOC 423± Int²oducto²y Biochemist²y Energetics and Metabolism OBJECTIVES Be able to draw the structures of ATP, ADP and AMP. Understand the chemical basis for the high phosphoryl group transfer potential of ATP versus ADP and AMP. Understand the function of ATP, i.e. how the high phosphoryl group transfer potential of ATP links catabolic and anabolic processes. Understand the concept of coupled reactions and be able to use Δ G o ’ to determine whether a coupled reaction occurs spontaneously. Be able recognize the structures of NADH and FADH2. Understand the chemical basis of their ability to serve as electron carriers and which parts of these two molecules are reversibly oxidized and reduced. You should be able to explain at a chemical level how the active part of these molecules work. Describe the functional difference between NADH and NADPH. Understand the significance of energy charge and phosphorylation potential. OUTLINE I. Strategy of Metabolism Steady state conditions Forbidden transitions II. ATP - Energy Currency Substrate level phosphorylation "High energy" compounds III. Capturing "Reducing Power" Definition of "Reducing Power" NAD(P)H FADH 2 IV. Carbon intermediates V. Balancing Anabolism and Catabolism
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LECTURE Metabolic Strategy We are about to begin the second section of this introductory biochemistry course. In this section we will focus on how we extract energy from our sources of metabolic fuel (food). If we were to look at our breakfast carefully, in it we would find a complex mixture of biopolymers containing protein, carbohydrate, lipid, nucleic acid along with an assortment of vitamins and minerals. By putting this mixture into a calorimeter with excess oxygen and an ignition source we could immediately burn all of the food molecules and produce CO 2 , H 2 O and energy in the form of heat. This measurement of the total number of calories in food is a method of assessing how much usable energy there is available. Obviously, we cannot use the immediate combustion approach biologically to capture the energy in food because we have no method of storing the energy until needed and the amount of energy released at one time is more than the body can physically tolerate. The problem that we have with this approach is that energy in a big bolus and in the form of heat is inconvenient. An automobile or steam engine can use that energy but we can’t. We need to limit heat production as much as possible and capture the energy in another biologically usable form. A second problem associated with the total combustion approach to energy metabolism is that the fuel is either starting material or product, CO 2 and H 2 O.
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10 Energetics overview - Biochemistry Education BIOC 423...

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