reading02_elasticity

reading02_elasticity - (elasticity) . . , (?) . 1. . A B =...

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Unformatted text preview: (elasticity) . . , (?) . 1. . A B = ∆A B dA B ∆A/A = · =⇒ · ∆B/B ∆B A dB A (1) ∆B →0 A B , , A ( ) .A . “B A ” A A/A . B ,B , B B (, ‘ . A/ B B/B ’ dA/dB ) , , . . A A ‘ A ’ , 1000 . 0.01”, 100 99 “1 /25 A/A 10 “10 /100 = −0.01”, 25 = 0.04” ‘ , 100 4% /1000 = 1 . 100 1% 1 ’ 10 “−1 1 ‘ ’ % 1 . 1000 1% 25 . ∆A/∆B B 1 (∆A/A)/(∆B/B ) B 1% A , A ‘ % ’ . ‘ ’ , , . A . ,B . ,A (Q), B (P ) , 1% . % ∆P . , . 1 , ∆Q 0.5 . 0.5 1 . 1 1,000 100 500 , 50 . ( ) 0.7 , . , . 0.5 1% , 10 1,000 0.5% 0.7 , , 1% 0.5% 10 500 , . 1% 0.7% ( ) . 1% , . 2. ∆ A = A 2 − A 1 , ∆B = B 2 − B 1 (A2 − A1 )/A A2 − A1 B ∆A/A = = · ∆B/B (B2 − B2 )/B B2 − B1 A , B1 A1 (2) , B2 A2 . (2) ∆A ∆B B /A A1 . , A2 B1 B2 . , . ‘ ’ . , 1000 500 , 50% (= 50/100) 100% (=500/500) . 1000 . , 500 400 , 300 1000 300 . . 1000 400 500 100/300 = 33.3/50 = 0.666 400 . 300 50% 33.3% , (2) . 500 1000 100% 100/400 = 25% 25/100 = 0.25 1 , 1000 . 1 300 , . , 500 1000 ? . 500 1000 , . 500 1000 , , 2 (2011 ) . , (mid-point) (P1 + P2 )/2 . , (Q1 + Q2 )/2 B A . (P1 + P2 )/2 . (Q1 + Q2 )/2 (1 . ) . . , . . , 100% . 50% 1%, 2% . 0.01% , . , , , . , , ∆B (A2 , B2 ) (A + ∆A, B + ∆B ) ( 3. (A1 , B1 ) (A, B ) . ) . xx 3 . ,3 1 . x1 (p1 , p2 , m) , , , 3.1 3 ( . ) εi = ∆xi pi ∂xi pi ∆xi /xi = · =⇒ · ∆pi /pi ∆pi xi ∂pi xi pi . i (−) . xi . .( .) . . |εi | . ‘ ’ 1 , ‘ (unit elastic)’ 1 . , |εi | > 1 ‘ (elastic)’, . . 3 (2011 ) |εi | < 1 ‘ (inelastic)’ . , , ( ) . , , . . 3.2 j pj i i xi j (cross-price elasticity) εij = ∆xi pj ∂xi pj ∆xi /xi = · =⇒ · ∆pj /pj ∆pj xi ∂pj xi 1 , . ,1 ,1 , . (+) , . 1 , 1 ‘ (substitutes)’ 2 1 (* 2 2 . 1 2 ‘ : (−) , (complements)’ . ?‘ ? ’ ?) 3.3 m . ηi = ∆xi /xi ∆x i m ∂xi m = · · =⇒ ∆m/m ∆m x i ∂m xi ηi = 1 ηi > 1 ‘ (luxury)’ , 0 < ηi < 1 ηi > 0 ‘ , . ‘ (inferior good)’ ‘ (necessity)’, (normal good)’, ηi < 0 . . ‘∼ . ’ . , , . . , , . , , . 4 (2011 ) 4. . , . p1 x1 x1 p 1 x1 (p1 , p2 , m) . x1 . . 4.1 |ε1 | = 1 p1 x1 p1 . 1% , 1% , p1 x1 (1 + 0.01)p1 × (1 − 0.01)x1 = 1.01 × 0.99p1 x1 = 0.9999p1 x1 . |ε1 | = 1 . ‘p1 x1 p1 x1 = k , −1 ’ .( x1 = k/p1 .) |ε1 | > 1 , ) ( , . , , . , ( ) 100 . , . , , , . , . 4.2 . s1 p1 x1 /m = . η1 = 1 . x1 = Km/p1 1 , , p1 x1 /m = K m . η1 > 1 .( η1 < 1 .) , . 5 (2011 ) ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/27/2011 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Hal during the Spring '11 term at Ewha Womans University.

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