Zumdahl+Chapter+2+lecture+notes

Zumdahl+Chapter+2+lecture+notes - Chapter 2 Atoms,...

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8/20/07 Zumdahl Chapter 2 1 Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions
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8/20/07 Zumdahl Chapter 2 2 Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules and Ions 2.1 The Early History of Chemistry 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws 2.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 2.4 Cannizzaro’s Interpretation 2.5 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom 2.6 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction 2.7 Molecules and Ions 2.8 An Introduction to the Periodic Table 2.9 Naming Simple Compounds
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8/20/07 Zumdahl Chapter 2 3 The Scientific Method To understand a given phenomenon, these steps are repeated may times Accumulating Knowledge to provide a possible explanation A Theory (or model) is a set of tested hypothesis that gives an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon. A natural law is a summary of observed (measurable) behavior. It summarizes what happens. A theory is an attempt to explain why it happens.
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8/20/07 Zumdahl Chapter 2 4 A Timeline of Early Chemistry and the Atom 450 BC……. . 0……… 1800……. .1850……… 1900……… -450 BC Empedocles - earth, air, fire, water -400 BC Democritus: idea of an atom; is water like sand: smooth from afar, coarse up close? Atoms had no mass, just filled space 1661 Robert Boyle: “The Skeptical Chemist”. Disputes Greek 4 element theory; postulates an element is a substance that can not be reduced into simpler substances. 1774 Joseph Priestly discovers oxygen gas. 1789 Antoine Lavoisier discovery of the law of conservation of mass. 1801 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac combining volume of gases, ballooning 1808 Joseph Proust postulates the law of definite proportions. A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass 1808 John Dalton postulates that atoms have weight and combine to form substances 1811 Amedeo Avogadro postulates that compounds are formed from molecules. Equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles. 1820 Michael Faraday: charge/mass ratio of protons 1860 Stanislao Cannizzaro establishes approximate values of the relative atomic masses. (e.g., Carbon relative mass is 12, Oxygen 16)
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5 The Person Behind the Science Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) Highlights – Law of Conservation of Mass – Mass is neither created nor destroyed – Heated Red Oxide of Mercury – Father of Modern Chemistry
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Zumdahl+Chapter+2+lecture+notes - Chapter 2 Atoms,...

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