Zumdahl+Chapter+4+lecture+notes

Zumdahl+Chapter+4+lecture+notes - Chapter 4 Types of...

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9/6/07 Zumdahl Chapter 4 1 Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Na 2 SO 4 solution Pb(NO 3 ) 2 soln. PbSO 4 (s)
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9/6/07 Zumdahl Chapter 4 2 Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations (skip) 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations (skip)
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9/6/07 Zumdahl Chapter 4 3 Water, the Common Solvent Dissolution: Solution: Solvent: Solute: In principle, the solute and solvent can be any combination of solid ( s ), liquid ( l ), and gaseous ( g ) phases. Hydration:
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9/6/07 Zumdahl Chapter 4 4 Ionic Compounds in Water: Ionic compounds are solids (salts) in the range of temperature in which water is a liquid. They have rigid lattices in which strong forces ( ionic bonds ) pin the constituent ions in place. Ionic compounds have high melting temperatures. Large amount of energy must be supplied to break up the lattice and produce a solution in which the ions move more freely. Hydration: Molecules of water are electrically dipolar ( polar ). When water contacts an ionic compound such as NH 4 NO 3 , the negative poles of some of the water molecules attract the positive ions ( cations ), while the positive poles of others attract the negative ions ( anions ).
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9/6/07 Zumdahl Chapter 4 5 Ionic Compounds in Water: Solute is said to dissociate into ions or to ionize upon dissociation. NH 4 NO 3 ( s ) + H 2 O ( l ) ! NH 4 + ( aq ) + NO 3 ( aq )
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9/6/07 Zumdahl Chapter 4 6 • Pairs of liquids that mix in any proportion are termed miscible . Liquids that do not mix are termed immiscible "Like dissolves like" in other words, substances with similar intermolecular attractive forces tend to be soluble in one another
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9/6/07 Zumdahl Chapter 4 7 “like dissolves like” concept CHO OH H H OH OH H OH H CH 2 OH O H HO H HO H OH OH H H OH OH HO OH HO HO O fructose O OH HO OH HO HO glucose NH 2 O OH alanine HO ethanol O H H water OH OH HO O HO O OH OH HO HO O sucrose = =
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9/6/07 Zumdahl Chapter 4 8 “like dissolves like” concept HO octanol octane benzene isobutane cyclohexane Cl Cl Cl Cl carbon tetrachloride Non-Polar
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9/6/07 Zumdahl Chapter 4 9 Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes: Electrolytes: Mainly ionic compounds such as potassium sulfate (K 2 SO 4 ) and sodium chloride (NaCl), which, as a solute, of water when they dissolve. Non-Electrolytes: of water when they dissolve. E.g. sucrose Strong electrolytes: E.g . KCl, H 2 SO 4 , NH 4 OH
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9/6/07 10 The Composition of Solutions The actual amount of solute (the substance dissolved in the solvent ) in any given volume of solution depends on how concentrated or dilute the solution happens to be.
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This note was uploaded on 08/28/2011 for the course CHEM 1310 taught by Professor Cox during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Zumdahl+Chapter+4+lecture+notes - Chapter 4 Types of...

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