Zumdahl+Chapter+5+Lecture+Notes

Zumdahl+Chapter+5+Lecture+Notes - G ases Saving Lives with...

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9/13/07 Zumdahl Chapter 5 1 Gases http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~courses/genchem/Tutorials/Airbags/gas_06.htm http://auto.howstuffworks.com/airbag.htm Saving Lives with Gas Laws: Airbag Chemistry
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9/13/07 Zumdahl Chapter 5 2 Chapter 5 Gases 5.1 Early Experiments 5.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles and Avogadro 5.3 The Ideal Gas Law 5.4 Gas Stoichiometry 5.5 Dalton’s Laws of Partial Pressure 5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 5.7 Effusion and Diffusion 5.8 Collisions of Gas Particles with the Container Walls 5.9 Intermolecular Collisions 5.10 Real Gases 5.11 Chemistry in the Atmosphere
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9/13/07 Zumdahl Chapter 5 3 The Person Behind the Science Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) Highlights In 1641, moved to Florence to assist the astronomer Galileo. Designed first barometer It was Galileo that suggested Evangelista Torricelli use mercury in his vacuum experiments. Torricelli filled a four-foot long glass tube with mercury and inverted the tube into a dish. Moments in a Life Succeed Galileo as professor of mathematics in the University of Pisa. Asteroid (7437) Torricelli named in his honor Barometer P = g x d x h
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9/13/07 Zumdahl Chapter 5 4 A pressure of 101.325 kPa is need to raise the column of Hg “standard pressure” 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 1 atm = 101.325 kPa
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9/13/07 Zumdahl Chapter 5 5 PV = n RT ideal gas law
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9/13/07 Zumdahl Chapter 5 6 V 1 / V 2 = T 1 / T 2 (at a fixed pressure) P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (at a fixed temperature) Boyle’s Law Charles’ Law V ! P -1 V ! T V ! n (at a fixed pressure and temperature) Avogadro V ! P -1 V ! T V ! n V ! n TP -1 1662 1787 1811 n = number of moles
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Zumdahl Chapter 5 7 Boyle’s Law: The Effect of Pressure on Gas Volume The product of the pressure and volume, PV , of a sample of gas is a constant at a constant temperature: PV = k = Constant (at a fixed temperature and for a fixed amount of gas)
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9/13/07 Zumdahl Chapter 5 8 Boyle’s Law: The Effect of Pressure on Gas Volume Example The long cylinder of a bicycle pump has a volume of 1131 cm 3 and is filled with air at a pressure of 1.02 atm. The outlet valve is sealed shut, and the pump handle is pushed down until the volume of the air is 517 cm 3 . The temperature of the air trapped inside does not change. Compute the pressure inside the pump. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (at a fixed temperature and for a fixed amount of gas) (1.02 atm)(1131 cm 3 ) = P 2 (517 cm 3 ) = 2.23 atm
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Gas Stoichiometry STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure) For 1 mole of any gas (i.e., 32.0 g of O 2 ; 28.0 g N 2 ; 2.02 g H 2 ), PV = k = 22.4 L atm (at 0 o C for 1.00 mol of any gas) At 1 atm, PV = k = 22.4 L (at 0 o C for 1.00 mol of any gas) STP = standard temperature and pressure = 0 o C and 1 atm P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 i.e., condition 1 to condition 2
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9/13/07 Zumdahl Chapter 5 10 Charles’ Law: The Effect of Temperature on Gas Volume At constant pressure, the volume of a sample of gas is a linear function of its temperature.
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This note was uploaded on 08/28/2011 for the course CHEM 1310 taught by Professor Cox during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.