Zumdahl+Chapter+7+Lecture+Notes

Zumdahl+Chapter+7+Lecture+Notes - Chapter 7 Acids and Bases...

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Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The pH Scale 7.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions 7.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions 7.6 Bases 7.7 Polyprotic Acids 7.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts 7.9 Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration (skip) 7.10 Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H + Concentration (skip) 7.11 Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 2 Acids and Bases and Their Reactions (from Chapter 4) Acid Base Theory 1. Arrhenius Acids and Bases Acids are H + donors Bases are OH - donors 2. Arrhenius Broadened Definition Acids increase H + concentration or [H + ] increases Bases increase OH - concentration or [OH - ] increases 3. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases (1923) Acids donate H + Bases accept H + Arrhenius 1903 Nobel Prize
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 3 Acid-Base Equilibria Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a substance that can donate a hydrogen ion. A Brønsted-Lowry base is a substance that can accept a hydrogen ion. In the Brønsted-Lowry Acid and Base concept, acids and bases occur as conjugate acid - base pairs .
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 4 Conjugate Base - subtract an H + from the acid Conjugate Acid add H + to the base Examples 1.OH is the conjugate base of H 2 O, i.e., remove H + from H 2 O 2.H 2 O is the conjugated base of H 3 O + (called the hydronium ion) 3.H 2 O is the conjugated acid of OH 4.H 3 O + (or often shown as H + ) is the conjugate acid of H 2 O
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 5 Pairs 1 2 2 1 Acetic Acid Point of View #1 acid base Conjugate acid of H 2 O Conjugate base of CH 3 CO 2 H CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O H 3 O + + CH 3 CO 2 - Point of View #2 acid base Conjugate base of H 3 O + Conjugate acid of CH 3 CO 2 - CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O H 3 O + + CH 3 CO 2 - base base acid acid Acetate Ion CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O H 3 O + + CH 3 CO 2 -
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 6 Nomenclature When H + is hydrated it is H 3 O + and called a hydronium ion . Often H 3 O + is written in a simpler notation H + (aq) or just H +. 111.7° +
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 7 • Competition for the proton between two bases H 2 O and A • If H 2 O is a much stronger base than A the equilibrium lies far to the right. • If A is a much stronger base than H 2 O the equilibrium lies far to the left. HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A HA = generic acid [HA] ] ][A O [H K 3 a ! + = K a is Acid Dissociation constant
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 8 Acid Strength: graphical representation of the behavior of acids of different strengths in aqueous solution. A strong acid : equilibrium lies far to the right HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A A weak acid : equilibrium lies far to the left HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A A weak acid yields a relatively strong conjugate base
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 9 Relationship of acid strength and conjugate base strength HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A [HA] ] ][A O [H K 3 a ! + =
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 10 HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A [HA] ] ][A O [H K 3 a ! + = pK a = – log(K a )
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 11
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11/7/07 Zumdahl Chapter 7 12
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13 H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - Pairs 1 2 2 1 base
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Zumdahl+Chapter+7+Lecture+Notes - Chapter 7 Acids and Bases...

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