Zumdahl+Chapter+8+lecture+notes

Zumdahl+Chapter+8+lecture+notes - Chapter 8 Applications of...

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11/12/07 Zumdahl Chapter 8 1 Chapter 8 Applications of Aqueous Equilibria 8.1 Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion 8.2 Buffered Solutions 8.3 Exact Treatment of Buffered Solutions (skip) 8.4 Buffer Capacity 8.5 Titrations and pH Curves 8.6 Acid-Base Indicators 8.7 Titration of Polyprotic Acids (skip) 8.8 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product 8.9 Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis (skip) 8.10 Complex Ion Equilibria (skip)
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11/12/07 Zumdahl Chapter 8 2 Applications of Aqueous Equilibrium The Common Ion Effect HF ( aq ) ! H + ( aq ) + F - ( aq ) K a = 7.2 x 10 -4 What happens to H + concentration , if some extra F - is added, from a common ion from another source? Recall Le Chatelier’s principle A general effect that applies to weak acids, weak bases and solubility of salts when a common ion is added to the equilibrium reaction Source of F NaF (s) ! Na + (aq) + F (aq) [HF] ] ][F O [H K 3 a ! + = HF is less acidic with added common ion, less H + produced, thus pH increases relative to pH with no common ion see Example 8.1
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11/12/07 Zumdahl Chapter 8 3 Applications of Aqueous Equilibrium The Common Ion Effect If a solution and a solid salt to be dissolved in it have an ion in common , then the solubility of the salt is depressed . General equation AB (s) ! A + ( aq ) + B - ( aq )
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11/12/07 Zumdahl Chapter 8 4 Buffer Solutions: contain a common ion and are important in biochemical and physiological processes Organisms (and humans) have built-in buffers to protect them against large changes in pH. Buffers any solutions that maintain an approximately constant pH despite small additions of acids or bases Applications of Aqueous Equilibrium Buffered Solutions Human blood is a buffered solution The Common Ion Effect on Buffering
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5 The Person Behind the Science Lawrence Henderson (1878-1942) Highlights ! Physiologist, chemist, biologist, philosopher, and sociologist. ! Investigated the regulation of [H + ] of blood. Acid-base balanced by buffer systems of the blood in complex coordination with respiration, the lung, red blood cells, and with the kidneys. ! Sociologist: classical Hawthorne experiments, revealing critical role of social action and informal social rules of workers and their organization by informal groups. Moments in a Life Invented the Nomogram— a taut string or edge is on two known values. The answer is read off another line. Allows calculation of 1 variable when 2 known.
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11/12/07 Zumdahl Chapter 8 6 Buffered acetic acid
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11/12/07 Zumdahl Chapter 8 7 Buffers any solutions that maintain an approximately constant pH despite small additions of acids or bases Human blood ( pH = 7.4 ) is maintained by a combination of CO 3 -2 , PO 4 -3 and protein buffers, which accept H + pH > 7.8 = Death How Do Buffers Work ? Death = 7.0 <
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8 a 3 a rearranged K formula [HA] [H O ] K [A ] + ! = How Do Buffers Work ? • [H + ] or pH depends on K a and the ratio of acid to salt or [A !
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Zumdahl+Chapter+8+lecture+notes - Chapter 8 Applications of...

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