Zumdahl+Chapter+13+Lecture+notes

Zumdahl+Chapter+13+Lecture+notes - C h e m ic a l B o n d...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–11. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 1 Chemical Bonding: The Classical Description 110 o C
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 2 Chapter 13 Bonding; General Concepts 13.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 13.2 Electronegativity 13.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 13.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes 13.5 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds SKIP 13.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds 13.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model 13.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions SKIP 13.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model 13.10 Lewis Structure 13.11 Resonance 13.12 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 13.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model
Image of page 2
10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 3 Preliminaries Our knowledge of atomic structure, electron configurations and periodic properties gives a foundation for understanding bonding. Electrons can be divided into: – Core electrons (e - in a filled shell) – Valence electrons (e - in an unfilled shell, outermost electrons) Valence electrons participate in bonding through: – Sharing of e - by atoms: covalent bonding – Transfer of e - from one atom to another: ionic bonding
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 4 Types of Chemical Bonds Ionic Bonding – Ionic substances are formed when an atom that loses electrons relatively easily reacts with an atom that has a high affinity for electrons Na · ! Na + + e - Loss of a valence electron e - + Cl ! Gain of a valence electron : Cl : . . . . - : Cl : . . . . - + Na + ! NaCl Combination to form the compound NaCl
Image of page 4
10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 5 Chemical Bonding The energy of interaction between a pair of ions can be calculated by using Coulomb's law 1 2 4 Q Q V r !" = o
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Zumdahl Chapter 13 6 Atoms or molecules approach at large distance zero PE (energy of position initially)) PE goes negative as attraction intermolecular forces come into play PE minimum energy, maximum attraction achieved, outweighs the repulsive forces PE goes positive as repulsive forces dominate
Image of page 6
10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 7 Lewis Dot Diagrams Lewis dot symbols represent valence e - Octet rule : Atoms that gain or lose electrons with a filled outermost shell (a Noble gas like configuration) are especially stable -- they have a completed octet. Li Be B C N O F Ne F Ca F + 2e - + e - Li Li + e - Ca 2+ Stable ionic compounds: LiF CaF 2
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 8 Types of Chemical Bonds Covalent Bonding – Electrons are shared by the nuclei Whenever possible, the valence electrons in a compound are distributed in such a way that each main-group element in a molecule (except hydrogen) is surrounded by eight electrons (an octet of electrons ). Hydrogen should have two electrons in such a structure . H:Cl: ·· ·· ·Cl: ·· ·· ! or H " Cl: ·· ··
Image of page 8
9 The effect of an electric field on hydrogen fluoride molecules. Polar covalent bonds Dipole Moments Bonded atoms share electrons unequally, whenever they differ in Electronegativity E.g., HF The F atom carries a slightly negative electric charge and the H atom a slightly positive charge of equal magnitude. Aligns itself in an electric field Dipolar or polar molecules posses a dipole moment, μ
Image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13
Image of page 10
Image of page 11
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern