Zumdahl+Chapter+13+Lecture+notes

Zumdahl+Chapter+13+Lecture+notes - C h e m ic a l B o n d...

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10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 1 Chemical Bonding: The Classical Description 110 o C
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10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 2 Chapter 13 Bonding; General Concepts 13.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 13.2 Electronegativity 13.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 13.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes 13.5 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds SKIP 13.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds 13.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model 13.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions SKIP 13.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model 13.10 Lewis Structure 13.11 Resonance 13.12 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 13.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model
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10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 3 Preliminaries • Our knowledge of atomic structure, electron configurations and periodic properties gives a foundation for understanding bonding. • Electrons can be divided into: – Core electrons (e - in a filled shell) – Valence electrons (e - in an unfilled shell, outermost electrons) • Valence electrons participate in bonding through: – Sharing of e - by atoms: covalent bonding – Transfer of e - from one atom to another: ionic bonding
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10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 4 Types of Chemical Bonds • Ionic Bonding – Ionic substances are formed when an atom that loses electrons relatively easily reacts with an atom that has a high affinity for electrons Na · ! Na + + e - Loss of a valence electron e - + Cl ! Gain of a valence electron : Cl : . . . . - : Cl : . . . . - + Na + ! NaCl Combination to form the compound NaCl
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10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 5 Chemical Bonding The energy of interaction between a pair of ions can be calculated by using Coulomb's law 1 2 4 QQ V r !" = o
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10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 6 • Atoms or molecules approach at large distance – zero PE (energy of position initially)) • PE goes negative as attraction intermolecular forces come into play • PE minimum energy, maximum attraction achieved, outweighs the repulsive forces • PE goes positive as repulsive forces dominate
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10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 7 Lewis Dot Diagrams • Lewis dot symbols represent valence e - • Octet rule : Atoms that gain or lose electrons with a filled outermost shell (a Noble gas like configuration) are especially stable -- they have a completed octet. Li Be B C N O F Ne F Ca F + 2e - + e - Li Li + e - Ca 2+ Stable ionic compounds: LiF CaF 2
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10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 8 Types of Chemical Bonds • Covalent Bonding – Electrons are shared by the nuclei Whenever possible, the valence electrons in a compound are distributed in such a way that each main-group element in a molecule (except hydrogen) is surrounded by eight electrons (an octet of electrons ). Hydrogen should have two electrons in such a structure . H:Cl: ·· ·· ·Cl: ·· ·· ! or H " Cl: ·· ··
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10/11/07 Zumdahl Chapter 13 9 The effect of an electric field on hydrogen fluoride molecules. Polar covalent bonds Dipole Moments Bonded atoms share electrons unequally, whenever they differ in Electronegativity E.g., HF The F atom carries a slightly negative electric charge and the H atom a slightly positive charge of equal magnitude. Aligns itself in an electric field Dipolar or polar molecules posses a dipole moment, μ
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Zumdahl+Chapter+13+Lecture+notes - C h e m ic a l B o n d...

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