Zumdahl+Chapter+14+Lecture+Notes

Zumdahl+Chapter+14+Lecture+Notes - C o v a le n t B o n d...

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10/21/07 Zumdahl Chapter 14 1 Covalent Bonding: Hybrid and Molecular Orbital Descriptions Why is liquid oxygen held by a strong magnetic field?
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10/21/07 Zumdahl Chapter 14 2 Chapter 14 Covalent Bonding: Orbitals Topics to cover: 14.1 Hybridization and Localized Electron Model 14.2 Molecular Orbital Model 14.3 Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules 14.4 Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules 14.5 Combining Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models 14.7 Molecular Spectroscopy: Introduction 14.8 Electronic Spectroscopy
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10/21/07 Zumdahl Chapter 14 3 Hybrid or Localized Electron Model ! Combinations of atomic orbitals on each ATOM to form hybrid orbitals " Hybrid orbitals give a steric number and possible geometries " Overlap of hybrids on adjacent orbitals to form bonds " Bonding electron pairs are localized mainly between atoms 2s and 2p orbitals Hybridization Set of 4 sp 3 hybrid orbitals
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10/21/07 Zumdahl Chapter 14 4 ! Linear combinations to form sp 3 hybrids ! 1 = (1/2) [(2s) + (2p x ) + (2p y ) + (2p z )] ! 2 = (1/2) [(2s) + (2p x ) - (2p y ) - (2p z )] ! 3 = (1/2) [(2s) - (2p x ) + (2p y ) - (2p z )] ! 3 = (1/2) [(2s) - (2p x ) - (2p y ) + (2p z )] Hybridization Hybridization Set of 4 sp 3 hybrid orbitals Steric number = 4 bonding: Tetrahedral, trigonal pyrimdal, bent
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10/21/07 Zumdahl Chapter 14 5 Bonding in Methane: sp 3 Hybridization ! Single bond in CH 4 described as due overlap of 1s orbital of H with an sp 3 hybrid orbital ! 1 e - in H 1s and 1 e - in C sp 3 shared by each H and C to form 4 single bonds ! Similar picture applies to binding in NH 3
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This note was uploaded on 08/28/2011 for the course CHEM 1310 taught by Professor Cox during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Zumdahl+Chapter+14+Lecture+Notes - C o v a le n t B o n d...

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