Motivation to Respond 4. Punishment is more effective when the motivation to engage in the punished response is lowest. Think criminals and jail. • Shock is not a punisher when you are deprived of 40% of your free feeding weight ○ At 85%, electric shock is a punisher, so bad that you stop responding. (too aversive) ○ Azrin et al. (1963) exponsed pigeons to intermittent food reinforcement. Then they introduced electric shock for every 100th response, but they still earned food on an intermittent schedule . • Motivation was altered by limiting the amount of food they were given before sessions. Negative Reinforcement (SR-) • An example of aversive control • Negative reinforcement : when the removal, prevention, or attenuation of some stimulus results in an increase in the future probability of the response Negative Reinforcer • Any event that increases operant behavior by its removal is a negative reinforcer Two Types of SR-• 1.Escape • 2. Avoidance Escape • Car stereo ○ When an aversive stimulus is present, and R terminates that stimulus, the difference between the condition with and without the aversive stimulus is an immediate one. • Escape behavior is acquired more readily than avoidance
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