Reinforcement Schedules (Exam 3 Notes)

Reinforcement Schedules (Exam 3 Notes) - Reinforcement...

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Background The study of INT (intermittent - not every instance of behavior will produce a reinforcer…i.e. windshield wipers on intermittent don’t wipe windshield constantly, every once in a while only) relations between behavior and its consequences is what we call schedules of reinforcement Interest in schedules of reinforcement can be traced to the work of B.F. Skinner in the mid 1930s. Always get a reinforcer or never Prior to Skinner, only the extremes of schedules were studied (every R was reinforced [CRF] or no responses were reinforced [EXT]) Quite by accident, Skinner found that INT scheduling of reinforcers could organize and sustain behavior over extended periods of time Serendipity Since then, reinforcement schedules have been used in a variety of different ways by behavior analysts The utility of schedules lies mainly in their ability to produce orderly and predictable patterns of behavior across a variety of different circumstances Consideration Reinforcement schedules happen Although they are studied extensively in highly controlled nonhuman laboratories, these schedules also help explain how we behave Your next test/quiz is in a couple of weeks, when do you start studying? You do poorly on all quizzes, never take a remedial, skip class or arrive late, and do not participate in lab. In may you "become" a model student willing to do any extra work to make up good grades. You lost your wallet (cell phone). How do you "find it?" - Trace your steps, stop looking when you find your wallet In the US Congress, each 2 years Congress schedules two meetings Their objective is to pass legislation (bills) When do you think most of the work gets done? At the meeting, legislation can be passed any time, but when you set the schedule of reinforcement, they pass bills on that day. According to graphs, they do work before the meeting Critchfield et al. (2003) Consider some examples Definitions Rules to obtain a reinforcer Schedules of reinforcement are prescriptions for arranging reinforcing consequences with respect to operant behavior Descriptive: description of the contingency (e.g., every 2 R will produce a reinforcer) What effects the rule has on behavior Nose-Poke Functional: description of the behavior patterns produced by contact with the schedule A distinction must be made between descriptive and functional definitions of schedules The Study of Reinforcement Schedules
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Reinforcement Schedules (Exam 3 Notes) - Reinforcement...

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