Reinforcement_ Making Stuff Happen (Exam 2 Notes)

Reinforcement_ Making Stuff Happen (Exam 2 Notes) -...

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Background Reinforcement just happens It happens naturally in the "real world." This will involve more than simply presenting stimuli It will require arranging consequences He called this, trial and error learning because it took the cats sever attempts, with sever errors, before they performed consistently and fast Does this sound familiar? Yes What do we call events that make a response more probable? Reinforcer What do we call events that make responses less probable? Punisher Thorndike's Law of Effect suggested that responses could be made more probable by some consequences and less probable by others Trial and Error Learning (gradual learning curve) Synonymous with "AHA!" moment Graph is like stairs What experiments best capture "insight" learning? Kohler's Chimps Insight Learning (sudden, stepped, learning) Thorndike's Proposed Mechanisms Recall the work of Thorndike and the cats Time required to escape vs. Successive trials in the puzzle box Latency to escape vs. Number of trials These are called learning curves , time to complete a response as a function of trials . Some illustrative findings Disassemble and reassemble a hand gun Disassemble and reassemble your computer Kobayashi vs. the Giant Bear What are some real-life examples of behavior that might "improve with practice" when latency is the behavioral measure? Real Life Examples Maze Learning Maze started as very complicated constructions Problem: It was difficult to study learning, because there were so many different ways to complete the maze Small's experimental analog for rats By defining what is correct and what is incorrect, the U-maze reduced some of the ambiguity of Small's first maze You can only go right or left Still problems with the U-maze because of sequence interactions (what you did before might influence your next choice) The U-Maze So, let's cut the # of choices to 1 Reduces problems, but doesn't eliminate them If 1 rat got the food on the first try, but the other didn’t, maybe the "right rat" will be better and faster, just because he got the first one right The T-Maze Problem still not solved Emphasized group performance (like before, not individual performance)
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This note was uploaded on 08/28/2011 for the course PSYC 210 taught by Professor Borrero,j during the Fall '08 term at UMBC.

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Reinforcement_ Making Stuff Happen (Exam 2 Notes) -...

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