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Unformatted text preview: SCIENCE 100 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE ***Biological Importance of Water*** Describe/recognize one way prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are similar and one way in which they differ All living things are made up of one or more than one cell. Prokaryotic Cell: Made up of one cell. Cell membrane No membrane bound organelles. Eukaryotic Cells: More complex: Have cell membrane and membrane bound organelles. Ex: chloroplasts, mitochondria, nucleus. Some are unicellular - some are unicell and others are multicell *Difference - Pro has no membrane bound organelles. Euk has cell membrane and membrane bound organelles. Pro has no nuclei while Euk has true nuclei. *Similar - They perform most of the same kinds of functions, and in the same ways. Both are enclosed by plasma membranes, filled with cytoplasm, and loaded with small structures called ribosomes. Both have DNA which carries the archived instructions for operating the cell. List/recognize the groups of organisms that are made up of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. The most familiar example of prokaryotes is bacteria and archaea; while algae, fungi, protista, along with all complex plants and animals are eukaryotic in nature. Diagram/describe the structure of a phospholipid (PL) molecule and explain how/why these molecules are arranged the way they are in a cell membrane. A phospholipid molecule consists of a hydrophilic polar head group and a hydrophobic tail. When many phospholipid molecules are placed in water, their hydrophilic heads tend to face water and the hydrophobic tails are forced to stick together, forming a bilayer. Name the other major type of molecule found in a cell membrane. Protein molecule - What makes the membrane truly special is the presence of different proteins on the surface that are used for various functions. Many of the membrane-associated proteins have hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. The hydrophilic regions are used to help anchor the protein inside of the cell membrane. Describe the Fluid Mosaic Model of a cell membrane. Fluid Mosaic Model - The plasma membrane is described to be fluid because of its hydrophobic integral components such as lipids and membrane proteins that move laterally or sideways throughout the membrane. That means the membrane is not solid, but more like a 'fluid'. The membrane is depicted as mosaic because the plasma membrane is composed of different kinds of macromolecules. According to the model, the plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer (interspersed with proteins). State/recognize the function of a cell membrane The cell membrane forms a barrier between the inside of the cell and the outside, so that the chemical environments on the two sides can be different. The cell controls those differences so as to optimize the workings of the chemical machinery inside the cytoplasm. The cell also causes brief changes in the internal environment by moving stuff across the membrane in a controlled way. These changes are the ways in which cell respond to events in the outside world.which cell respond to events in the outside world....
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- Fall '08