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1Running Head: CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION AND SQUARE OF OPPOSITIONCategorical Propositions and Square of OppositionAlice PonWest Coast University – OntarioPHIL 341Dr. Glenn6 December 2018
2CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION AND SQUARE OF OPPOSITIONCategorical Propositions and Square of OppositionCategory is a class or group that has particular shared characteristics, and logic is the study of incorrect and correct reasoning. In combination, categorical logic is the application of the rules of reasoning that deal with a class that is under the same category. Proposition is an argument which can be valid or invalid. Categorical proposition is a proposition that can be analyzed as being about classes, or categories, affirming or denying that one class, S, is included in some other class P, in whole or in part (Copi & McMahon, 2016); S is the subject term and P is the predicate term. Subject term indicates what the statement is about or whom the propositionis referring to; and predicate term expresses what the subject is or does. There are four types of categorical proposition: A, E, I, O; which form the square of opposition. An A-claim states all S are P, an E-claim states no S are P, an I-claim states some S are P, and an O-claim states some S are not P. They can be further categorized into affirmation and negation; which affirmation claim includes one class or part of one class within another, and negation claim excludes one class or part of one class from another (Moore & Parker, 2017); Furthermore, universal proposition is said to be all, and particular is some class, are under the category. They can also be categorized into quality and quantity claims; which quality affirms or